Abstract Review

American Politics

Name: Alexandra Agostinelli
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: ajagosti@buffalo.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: University At Buffalo
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Political Habits of Bronies: A Comparative Study on Non-Governmental Participation among Bronies
Abstract:
This study aims to examine the impact of popular culture on political beliefs. Specifically, it explores whether involvement and comfort expressing that involvement in the My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic fan community influences the adult fans’ feelings of political efficacy and their level of level of involvement in civic and non-electoral political participation compared to the general population of American adults, regardless of political identification. This research hypothesizes that as individuals become more connected to a culturally homogenous and identifiable community, the more that community will mold their political opinions and actions. In addition, when the cohesiveness that binds a community together is a media product, the explicit and implicit messages contained in that product will influence the opinions and behaviors of the individuals in the community. Greater involvement and connection to the community leads to higher civic and non-electoral participation. To collect data, in- person interviews of attendees at the BronyCon convention in Baltimore during early August 2014 were conducted. Surveys were also administered through a number of social network sites visited by fans of the franchise. This dual data collection technique promises to bring richness to the findings that emerge from the study, as the qualitative responses from the personal interviews can be used to elucidate the various mechanisms whereby membership in a fan community influences aspect of political behavior and belief construction. Counties with more than three respondents were used to compare respondent’s ideology and the general population. One interesting finding is, as as a whole, the Brony community leans politically left, however in the locations of respondents that allowed for further analysis, the Bronies leaned politically right.


Name: Diane Cypkin
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: dcypkin@pace.edu
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Pace University
Scheduling Preference:
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Marching for the Jews of Europe, Washington, DC, October 6, 1943, or the Consequences of the First Jewish Public Relations Campaign in America
Abstract:
On October 6, 1943, hundreds of “black-clad” Orthodox Rabbis “chanting from the book of Psalms,” marched on the nation’s Capitol. Their mission: To present the president with a petition and to deliver a holy message and appeal. Among other things, they called for the creation of a “special intergovernmental agency to save the remnant of Israel in Europe” from Nazi murder, even as they reminded the Judeo-Christian society of its responsibility one to another as fellow human beings. This essay will argue that the march--the unique and dramatic grand finale of the first Jewish public relations campaign in America, organized by the Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe and led by Peter Bergson, a public relations man —was ultimately instrumental in creating the “climate” that led to the president’s creation of the War Refugee Board. To understand how this happened, the historical environment, a study of the organizers of the march, their innovative media campaign, an investigation of those who participated in the march, the march, and, the consequences of the march will be closely examined.



Comparative Politics

Name: Abdulaziz Almuslem
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: aalmusle@buffalo.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: State University of New York at Buffalo
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  How Democracy Improves the Investment Climate in Postcolonial and Other States
Abstract:
This research shows that the distinction between different conceptualizations of democracy is important if democracy aims to create a low-risk image of the postcolonial state that can help attract investment. Specifically, this research shows that the mere election process, without the normative component of protecting civil liberties in the postcolonial states, actually increases risk perception for investors thereby having an adverse effect on FDI and domestic capital. The implication of this research on the chances of civil conflict is important since wealthier states have a reduced chance of experiencing civil conflict, and attracting investment can help promote wealth.


Name: Ikenna Alumona
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: ikennaalumona@yahoo.com
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University , Igbariam Campus
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Prof. Lere Amusan. Professor and Head, Department of Political Science and International Relations, North - West University, South Africa, lereamusan@gmail.com
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Youth Cultism, Crime and Lethal Violence in Nigerian Cities
Abstract:
In many parts of the world, cult groups create an atmosphere of negative peace as a result of their footprints in the security market which facilitates arms proliferation. Youth cultism is one of the sources of violence in most Nigerian cities. Several studies on cultism have focused on the evolution of cult related activities in Nigeria from non-violence to the proliferation of splinter secret cults in tertiary institutions and communities. This paper examines the socio-economic and security implications of cultism in Nigerian cities. The paper answers the following questions: Why are Nigerian cities prone to cult related activities? How does cultism affect people in cities? Analysis in this paper is anchored on social control theory which offers more insight into the spatial spread and ways of containing the organised criminal behaviour in the country. Recent confrontations between security forces and cult groups explain why the threat is more pronounced in some cities than others. This qualitative study stresses that the abatement of cultism so far has not yielded expected results as some innocent people are murdered by cult groups with dangerous weapons. The assurances of safety, protection, success in the society and influence by members when they join do not always materialise as desired. The paper suggests that informal peace education and security collaboration by all stakeholders remain crucial to the management of cult violence in Nigerian cities. Timely identification of notorious groups/members through early warning system will go a long way to discouraging the spatial spread and recruitment of new members. Keywords: Youth cultism, crime, Nigerian cities, cult groups, weapons.


Name: Monday Dickson
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: mondaydickson@aksu.edu.ng
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Global Economic Crisis and Recession in Nigeria: The Linkages and Consequences
Abstract:
In 2008, the global economy experienced the most severe crash since the 1930s. The economic downturn took a heavy toll on the economy of both rich and poor countries creating joblessness, wage stagnation and widespread economic insecurity. Soon after the world economy came out of the morass of the decline, recession engulfed the Nigeria State that had for the previous decades experienced sustained growth at unprecedented levels. This article examines the relationship between many of the key issues prevalent during the global economic crisis and recession in Nigeria. The study adopts the descriptive/qualitative research technique and relied essentially on relevant secondary data. Using the Marxian approach to economic crisis as the framework of analysis, the paper probes important questions including: What were the major causes of global economic crisis vis-a-vis recession in Nigeria? What is the relationship between the global economic crisis and recession Nigeria? The study argues that the sharp collapse in global economy left no country on the globe immune to recession owing to deep contradictions inherent in world capitalist system. Findings reveal that recession in Nigeria was a reaction from the global economic crisis which emerged from the basic working of capitalism. Consequently, Nigeria and other developing countries have been increasingly affected by the recession in advanced economies through the consequences of unbalanced trade and financial market channels. While the nation must adjust to the challenges of global capitalism, there is the need to refashion every aspect of the domestic economy towards diversification for self-sufficiency.


Name: Mirza Sadaqat Huda
Section:
Professional Email: mirzahuda@ntu.edu.sg
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: Nanyang Technological University
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Prof. Saleem Ali, University of Delaware
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: Energy diplomacy in South Asia: Beyond the security paradigm in accessing the TAPI pipeline project
Abstract:
On the 13th of December 2015, the leaders of Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India officially inaugurated the TAPI pipeline, which is set to be the largest cross-country energy infrastructure project undertaken in South Asia with an expected completion date of 2019. The limited literature on TAPI has almost exclusively focused on security impediments to the pipeline from the perspective of the member countries of the project. This paper argues that the solution to these impediments is greatly constrained by a reductionist rather than a multistakeholder approach. Using a broader understanding of the concept of energy diplomacy, this paper argues that energy infrastructure such as the TAPI can be used to encourage interdependency by expanding the number of stakeholders beyond the member countries of the project. While including the interests of external countries and institutions may build consensus on political issues, identifying ways by which the interests of communities can be addressed may reduce the explicit emphasis on the physical security of the pipeline by including human security concerns within the project’s blueprint. The cumulative impact of such an approach may create a shift in the perception of energy projects from the purview of security, to one of inclusive cooperation.


Name: Esra Issever-Ekinci
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: eissever@syr.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Syracuse University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:  Responsiveness of Turkish Governments
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Berk Esen, Bilkent University, berk.esen@bilkent.edu.tr Eda Bektas, Bilken University, eda.bektas@bilkent.edu.tr
Co-presenter info: Berk Esen, Bilkent University, berk.esen@bilkent.edu.tr Eda Bektas, Bilken University, eda.bektas@bilkent.edu.tr
Paper Title:  Electoral Reform Initiations in Parliamentary Democracies
Abstract:
In democratic systems, parties are expected to respond to the policy preferences of the electorate and fulfill their electoral promises should they come to power. This principle of responsiveness lies at the root of representative democracies. This paper examines to what extent this assumption holds true and what factors affect government responsiveness. This question has been studied in consolidated democracies, yet we have a limited understanding of government responsiveness in cases with weak democratic institutions. Since the level of public accountability is low in hybrid regimes, we may expect voters to not have strong tools at their disposal to monitor and punish political parties that do not deliver on their campaign promises. To address this general question, this paper examines the responsiveness of Turkish governments between 1983 and 2015. The longitudinal analysis of the Turkish case also provides a considerable variation in potential explanatory factors such as government type and ideology, number of parties in parliament, and economic conditions. Conceptualizing government responsiveness as the fit between ruling parties’ campaign promises and government policy outcomes, the paper estimates government’s responsiveness by analyzing the congruence between elections promises and (i) executive program, (ii) acts, (iii) statutory decrees and (iv) public expenditure of 18 Turkish governments.


Name: Wisdom Iyekekpolo
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: w.iyekekpolo@auckland.ac.nz
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: University of Auckland
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Insurgency Onset in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic: A Political Relevance Model
Abstract:
Over the past 15 years, Nigeria has experienced two insurgencies of extremely violent proportion. In the north-east zone, Boko Haram has waged a guerrilla war along primarily religious lines while in the south-south zone, the Niger Delta militants have waged a violent campaign driven by resource and class-based concerns. However, such insurgency did not erupt with the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) in the south-east zone. What explains the eruption of these insurgencies in some regions and not others in Nigeria’s fourth republic? The theoretical literature on insurgency has not sufficiently accounted for the emergence of these insurgencies because of its focus on either motivation or opportunity for insurgency onset at the expense of a more holistic approach. Building on the political process approach to collective movements, this paper presents the ‘Political Relevance’ model which incorporates the roles of motivation, opportunity, and the relationship among political agents in the emergence an insurgency. I contend that these insurgencies emerged in the north-east and south-south regions after mutually beneficial relationships between local political elites and politically relevant groups turned sour. The absence of such a process in the south-east explains why a violent insurgency failed to emerge with IPOB.


Name: Mehmet Arif Kosk
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: mehmet.kosk@pepi.ie.ufrj.br
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Challenging the International Order: an unusual approach between Turkey and Iran
Abstract:
During the administration of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), between the years 2010 and 2018, Turkey established a somewhat unusual rapprochement with the Iranian government, building a more expressive relationship than the previous approaches. This paper proposes an analysis of the reasons of this recent process of approximation in Turkish-Iranian relation after 2010, which coincides with the Tehran Declaration. In addition, this paper will seek to understand the perception of both countries on the International System, as well as their self-perceptions evaluating them as middle powers. Given this, how can such a process of approximation be defined in respect of bilateral relations? Is it a paradigmatic change in the relations between these two States or is it actually a conjunctural approximation? The dynamics of approximation of middle powers can be considered as demonstrations that there are sensible changes in the International Order or can be read as maintenance of the status quo by the inclusion of power. In this respect, we will understand this approximation between Turkey and Iran in its context and insertion in the International System, and not in an isolated environment and immune to external forces, because the anarchy in the International System is perceived by the excess of forces in its maximum variety of vectors , and not as the absence of forces. By considering the fact that there is little publication in english in this respect, it will be utilized the literature in Turkish by making sure that everything is translated into English in the scope of the research, in order to facilitate the reading of the text.


Name: David Tian
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: dtian5@jhu.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Johns Hopkins University
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Measuring the Size of the State: Primarily a Matter of Territory
Abstract:
There are few concepts more central to the field of political science than that of the state. Yet, despite its pervasiveness and centrality to the field, there remains no definite consensus on what - or who - constitutes a state. If there is disagreement on what a state is, then there is consequently even less agreement on how to measure state size. Previous scholars have suggested that state size is measured using various variables ranging from population to economic indicators to military capacity. This article agrees with scholars including Gianfranco Poggi and Michael Mann that the state is a territory. As a result, the article adds to the debate surrounding the appropriate measurement of state size by rejecting the notions that the size of a state can be measured using any variable other than territory, and that the only logical way to measure the size of a state is the measure the amount of territory under its control.


Name: Prince Aian Villanueva
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: prince_villanueva@dlsu.edu.ph
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Doctoral School of Political Science, Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Multiple pathways to corruption: A qualitative comparative analysis of corruption in Central Eastern Europe
Abstract:
Informed by the literature on democratization and civil society-corruption nexus, the paper is an attempt to describe the conditions through which the civil society (CS) affects control of corruption in Central Eastern Europe. It is argued that through “democratic anchoring” (Morlino, 2011), a process in which the civil society is linked to the new institutions through actions of the intermediate actors, the institutional design and external actors, the anticorruption effects of CS are facilitated. Specifically, the paper argues that the presence/absence of strong and cooperative civil society-political party linkages (parties as intermediate actors), institutionalization of civil society including participation in the anticorruption framework (institutional/constitutional design), and the external actors’ influence (such as the media) condition the CS’s impact on control of corruption in states in CEE. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is used to probe into the above objective.


Name: Matthew Williams
Section: Identity Politics
Professional Email: WilliamsM7@cf.ac.uk
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Cardiff University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: Political turbulence as a trigger for hate crime and hate speech
Abstract:
Recent research has shown that the prevalence and severity of offline crimes with a prejudicial component are influenced in the short term by singular or clusters of events. In particular, political votes have been found to function as antecedent ‘trigger’ events that validate prejudicial sentiments and tensions, opening up a space for the spread of hostile beliefs and actions. The referendum on the future of the UK in the EU is used in this paper as an example of an event that motivated both offline and online hate crime and speech. The hypothesis is that the Brexit vote and associated Leave campaigns, represented an exogenous ‘shock’ that legitimised, for a temporary period, race and religious hate crimes towards members of the ‘out-group’ in an attempt to protect economic (e.g. threats to jobs, housing, NHS waiting times) and symbolic (e.g. threats to way of life) resources of the ‘in-group’. Such resources were increasingly portrayed as under threat from EU migrants by the Vote Leave, Leave.EU and UKIP campaigns in the weeks running up to the vote. A study on the press in the weeks leading up to the vote found immigration and the economy were the two most-covered issues in reportage described as acrimonious and divisive, with particular groups (Turkish and Polish) receiving negative treatment. While no empirical work exists on the Leave social media campaigns, evidence shows Facebook posts from German right-wing parties and Twitter posts from Donald Trump correlate with offline hate crime at particular points in time. We present results from a quasi-experimental multivariate interrupted time-series analysis that incorporates traditional and new forms of longitudinal data, to model the ‘intervention’ effect of the Brexit vote and Leave campaigns at the national level. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the results in the context of new modes of political campaigning. In particular, we make reference to the role played by Cambridge Analytica and partners in the Leave campaign and their use artificial intelligence to micro-target vulnerable voters, using unethically obtained social media data.



History and Politics

Name: Abdulaziz Almuslem
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: aalmusle@buffalo.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: State University of New York at Buffalo
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  How Democracy Improves the Investment Climate in Postcolonial and Other States
Abstract:
This research shows that the distinction between different conceptualizations of democracy is important if democracy aims to create a low-risk image of the postcolonial state that can help attract investment. Specifically, this research shows that the mere election process, without the normative component of protecting civil liberties in the postcolonial states, actually increases risk perception for investors thereby having an adverse effect on FDI and domestic capital. The implication of this research on the chances of civil conflict is important since wealthier states have a reduced chance of experiencing civil conflict, and attracting investment can help promote wealth.


Name: Kleant Karreci
Section: History and Politics
Professional Email: kleant1987@hotmail.com
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: History And Archiology
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Globalization
Abstract:
GLOBALIZATION: THE GLOBALIZATION OF FOUR ANTINOMY Full Name : Kleant Karreci Occupation : Municipal Police Degree :History And Archilogy E-mail : Kleant1987@hotmail.com Tel: +355 685647755 There is a definition of globalization as the definitions do not exist anymore. "The success of the term globalization depends in large part by the fact that allows us to bring together in a single word the chaos that followed the end of bipolarity. It presents itself as a concept that makes possible a gigantic waste recycling and fragments of early modern - think colonial expansion (there is a link between the position of Arabs in France and the war in Algeria), to huge migrations that accompanied industrialization, the geopolitical consequences of the Cold War, the residues of which - including the Islamic terrorism - the industrial West has never sought to remove after 1989. The all-purpose word "globalization" allows you to remix in a new "meta-narrative" unifying, providing legitimacy to policies to reduce the rights of citizens, such as labor market flexibility in the dismantling of the post-war welfare state, presented as a new " historical necessity ". The term "globalization" is opposed in this way to the post-modern versions of the world, focusing instead on the dissolution of the great meta-narratives on which the mandatory modern order drew its legitimacy and power expansion. Like all the basic concepts of human sciences, the concept of globalization has a dimension analytical / descriptive, and a political / legislation. The "globalization" indicates, first, the coming of an era in which men are condemned to become "stewards of the Earth", to negotiate, that is, political pacts to secure an air breathing, socially sustainable mobility, compatible with a climate biological limits of human survival, flexibility, compatible with the anthropological bases of existence. Keywords: Globalization, analytical / descriptive, technological environment, collective action, public goods, capital, complexity, cost, transactional, deregulatio



International Relations and American Foreign Policy

Name: Alana Camoca Goncalves de Oliveira
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: alanacamoca@gmail.com
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: UFRJ
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  THE SINO-JAPANESE RELATIONS AND THE SECURITIZATION IN EAST CHINA SEA: THE SENKAKU/DIAOYU ISLANDS ISSUE IN 21st CENTURY
Abstract:
The territorial dispute over the Diaoyu, or Senkaku, Islands in the East China Sea has been fueled in 21st century because of the Japan’s and China’s domestic and foreign policies and the power shifts in the region. In International Security studies the theme of securitization (Copenhagen School) gained importance in the late twentieth century, where security was no longer necessarily a subject tied to political and military issues. Therefore, now there are new forms of understanding threats because they can also be subjective and a result of a discourse. It is argued that the Sino-Japanese territorial dispute and its diplomatic relations are determined by a complex myriad of factors, involving geostrategic, military, territorial, cultural, nationalist, energetic, and, in all cases, historical aspects. However, the articles on the Senkaku / Diaoyu Islands are normally focused in analysis involving military power or natural resources. Going on another direction, this article proposes to analyze the securitization of the dispute beyond hard power, trying to understand, above all, the role of societal factors, nationalism and cultural roots as parts of the foundations of the existence of such a dispute in the 21st century. For this, the article intends to merge a study on securitization and bordering practices in Asia in order to analyze the reasons why such dispute arose in the 21st century.


Name: Yaela Collins
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: ycollins@bassiounigroup.com
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: The Bassiouni Group/ Friends of Adwan Nepal
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Panel
Panel Title:  The Intersections of Human Rights and Security
Panel Description: The purpose of this panel is to discuss the relationships between development, human rights, and security. Perspectives from crime researchers, a human rights and country expert, development expert, and advocate will portray a well-rounded perspective on how awareness and education can help mitigate security issues that stem directly from a lack of development and human rights suppression.
Co-author info: Sabrina Diaz, independent researcher
Co-presenter info: Sabrina Diaz- paper co-author/presenter Dr. Bishnu Maya Pariyar- Dalit rights expert to present on the caste system and vulnerable communities in Nepal (specifically Dalit women and children) Dr. David Bassiouni- Humanitarian/development expert to present on the connections between development and security Joan Goldman- Awareness expert to present on the structure of FAN and organization strategies for issue mitigation
Paper Title:  Societal Status as a Security Vulnerability: Human Trafficking in Nepal
Abstract:
The Nepali caste system is heavily influenced by the Hindu caste system in terms of structure and interpretation of the value of status. Of the more than 40 caste and ethnic groups in Nepal, Dalits are considered the lowest and designated “untouchables.” Because of issues related to the population hierarchy, Nepal has suffered from political corruption, social discrimination, economic insecurity, and various modes of criminal activity, namely human trafficking for forced labor and sex work. While the social stratification system was made illegal in 1962, Nepali society still recognizes social classifications based on birthright, ethnicity, occupation, power and financial status. The perpetual informal caste system is a security vulnerability for low status groups as it inhibits individual growth, contributes to structural violence, and fosters willful blindness to the plight of the poor. A desk review and field work study undertaken over the course of seven months uncovered that government disinterest, poor data collection, and upper caste complacency has allowed Nepal to become a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking.


Name: Wes Cooper
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: wes.cooper@ubalt.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: University of Baltimore
Scheduling Preference:
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  The Anti-Americanism and Economic Sanctions Nexus: Understanding the Relationship between Seemingly Unrelated Variables
Abstract:
While there is much research on economic sanctions, there is no research on the relationship between anti-Americanism and economic sanctions. This study examines the relationship between anti-Americanism and economic sanctions by using quantitative analysis to explore a data set of several economic sanction cases that the US has either imposed or threatened since 1991. The study found a statistically significant relationship between the imposition of economic sanctions variable and anti-Americanism and between the threat of economic sanctions variable and anti-Americanism. This leads to the study’s conclusion that the general assumption in the anti-Americanism literature that the United States’ foreign policy causes anti-Americanism may be too simplistic of an explanation for the causation of anti-Americanism in foreign nations.


Name: Joseph Garske
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: jpg.today@yahoo.com
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: The Global Conversation
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  IMPERIAL ENGLAND, IMPERIAL SCOTLAND, AND THE RISE OF IMPERIAL AMERICA: Early steps toward a global rule of law
Abstract:
The influence of the British Empire in shaping the rise of American imperialism at the end of the nineteenth century is widely known. However, that influence was more complicated on both sides of the Atlantic than is conventionally portrayed in historical accounts. First of all, those imperial events involved not only matters of long distance trade, military power, and territorial acquisition. More than that, they involved elements of religion, of philosophy, of fraternal order, of race, and especially they involved elements of law. In fact, there was a profound division within Great Britain concerning how the Empire should rule its vast and disparate assortment of colonies, dominions, and protectorate. That division centered on two very different conceptions of law and the purposes it served, two very different legal traditions, the English and the Scottish. Their divided influence had important implications for an America that looked to Great Britain as its geopolitical mentor. The division between England and Scotland not only shaped American imperial methods, but also left a permanent mark on American legal institutions--and by subsequent American influence, left an indelible mark on affairs of the world.


Name: Jemma Kim
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: jmkim@meiji.ac.jp
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Meiji University
Scheduling Preference:
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: Japan and Asia-Pacific: The Political Economy of Trans-Pacific Parnership
Abstract:
This article looks at new policy shifts in Japan with regard to the TPP. Japan has shifted away from WTO-based multilateralism towards a bilateralism focused on free trade agreements (FTAs). Notwithstanding this, more recent Japanese FTA policies can be described in terms of a new trend away from bilateral agreements towards a “regional multilateralism.” While in government, the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) announced its intention to join the TPP, shifting its focus away from conventional bilateral agreements. This has been continued by the current administration under Abe, which has formally entered into TPP negotiations. Japanese trade policy thus appears to have developed a double-layered structure, moving from bilateral FTAs towards multiparty FTAs. Why has this occurred? Will the growing number of FTAs, and now the TPP, turn out to be a stepping stone or stumbling block towards regional economic integration? What are the implications of Japanese participation in the TPP for regional governance in East Asia? While existing studies have treated FTAs as the policy norms and basic premise of Japanese trade policy, this paper offers an alternative explanation of Japan’s TPP policymaking process, mainly focusing on the institutional problem such as the lack of communication channel between governments and interest groups.


Name: Ningxin Li
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: 3012680268@qq.com
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Nova Southeastern University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: NO co-authors
Co-presenter info: NO co-presenters
Paper Title:  Water Injustice and Poverty Relief in the Middle East
Abstract:
 Water injustice and inequitable allocation of water have severely impacted the overall economy and caused a large amount of poverty in the Middle East, which led to unfair treatment between Jewish people and Palestinians. For example, the lack of access to clean water and poverty have caused high rates of disease and death among Jewish and Palestinian populations who were living in the West Bank. Moreover, people, especially children, have died from diseases associated with inadequate water supply and sanitation. Conditions related to poor environmental health have become a public health threat. In the presentation, the author will analyze American’ role in the Middle Eastern policy, and the potential challenges for improving the water distribution policy, as well as finding the opportunities for Arabs and Israelis to enhance their quality of lives by international cooperation. The goal of this case study is to analyze the Israeli-Palestinian conflict over territory and resources and their relationship with the U.S. The author will discuss the plans of Jewish people and explain the reasons why Israel and America have tried to cooperate and to maximize their national interests. Moreover, the author will analyze the Social Identity Theory, and Realistic Group Conflict Theory to explain inter-group conflicts and the competition over limited resources. Additionally, the author applied the Theory of Cultural Hegemony to investigate why nations pursue cultural hegemony. Furthermore, the author will present how did environmental injustice has an impact on poverty and poverty-related diseases, which led to the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians in the Middle East.


Name: Abidemi Ologunde
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: aoologunde@mail.usf.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: University of South Florida
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: Alternatives to War: Arguments against Cyber Warfare
Abstract:
Cyber warfare is best described as an extension of the logic expressed in combined arms battle, not as an independent or alternative form of conflict. It will most often occur as an adjunct to conventional warfare or as a stop-gap and largely symbolic effort to express dissatisfaction with a foreign opponent. Cyber threat is now more directed at the sophisticated technologies of the West. When large states depend on complex cyber systems to support military and economic activities, it creates new vulnerabilities that can be exploited by experienced non-state actors. It is however premature to assume there is an impending cyber Pearl Harbor, given that the possibility of an internet-propelled conflict escalating into a full-scale war is minimal. Cyber war predictors usually promote the misconception that opportunity precedes outcome, instead of assessing the motives of those able to act and then considering whether something that could happen is at all likely. In other words, actors capable of wreaking significant cyber havoc fail to do so because they do not discern any meaningful benefit from initiating such acts. Cyber pessimism rests heavily on capabilities (means), with little thought to consequences (ends).


Name: Alexandra Orlova
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: aorlova@ryerson.ca
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Ryerson University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  “Foreign Agents,” Sovereignty and Political Pluralism: How Russian Foreign Agents Law is Shaping Civil Society
Abstract:
During the 1990s many Russian NGOs were successful in securing foreign funding and participating in transnational advocacy networks. However, as of early 2000s, the Russian authorities expressed concern over foreign and especially American-funded NGOs and their work and attempted to regain control over their activities, presenting them as national security threats. The 2012 Russian “foreign agents” law (claimed to be modeled on the US Foreign Agents Registration Act) and a 2018 pending case filed by Russian NGOs in front of the European Court of Human Rights challenging the provisions of the law, are reflective of contemporary Russian political rhetoric that views Western (and particularly US) governments and their agents, including NGOs, as attempting to undermine Russia’s ruling regime and posing a threat to national security. However, using the mechanism of legal challenges to challenge the provisions of the Russian “foreign agents” law either in domestic or in international realms, while making arguments of all sides transparent, also de-politicizes the issues by forcing all parties into the framework of legal arguments. This de-politicization reflects the decline of political pluralism in Russia. What is needed in order revitalize Russia’s civil society and transform its political governance, is a thorough rethinking of the notion of national security that includes NGOs participating in transnational advocacy networks as partners in providing it.


Name: Bugra Sari
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: bugrasari1988@gmail.com
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Turkish National Police Academy
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: It is not only Relational but also Structural: Revisiting the Resolution of the 1998 October Crisis through Elements of Structural Power
Abstract:
The 1998 October Crisis between Turkey and Syria has long been studied from various aspects. However, these studies are limited to a relational understanding which depicts the 1998 October Crisis as a (relational) power relationship in which Turkey got Syria to cease its support for the PKK that Syria would not do otherwise. Pointing that Turkey and Syria engaged in strategic cost-benefit analysis prior to their actions in the course of the Crisis, the relational understanding is based on “logic of consequences”. In this narrative, the 1998 October Crisis emerged as Turkey military threatened Syria since the benefits of cutting Syrian support to the PKK was higher than the costs of a possible military confrontation under the scope and domain of the power relationship occurred in the Crisis. In similar, fashion, the crisis was resolved as Syria accepted Turkey’s demands since the costs associated with insisting on using the PKK card against Turkey’s military threat were more than its benefits. This conclusion from relational point of view is plausible, yet it is at the same time not complete to understand all aspects of the resolution of the Crisis since it ignores the structural determinants such as actors’ self-understandings and subjective interests together with their differential social relational capacities that are shaped by their structural positions. While not rejecting the relational explanation to the resolution of the Crisis, this study attempts to complement them with a structural approach, drawing on the structural power conceptualization from post-positivist tradition. Hence, this study seeks to reveal the effects of structural power in the 1998 October Crisis through questioning how Syria’s structurally shaped subjective interests in the post-Cold War international structure and the norms concerning the international terrorism disempowered it to resist Turkey’s demands.


Name: Eric Scarffe
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: escarffe@bu.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Boston University
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Moving Toward A Dignity-Based Account of International Law
Abstract:
Since the end of World War II, the concept of ‘dignity’ has become a dominant theme in ethics and human rights, as well as countless other areas of study related to public policy, medicine, and law. However, despite the numerous appeals that are made to ‘dignity,’ there has been alarmingly little attention devoted to understanding this topic. A consequence of leaving ‘dignity’ unexamined has been a (sometimes) confused application of the term, which has invited intense criticism of its use more broadly in moral and legal discourse. In this paper, I briefly rehearse the general approach found in many consent-based theories of international law, and explain why these theories have trouble accounting for some of the features found in the practice of international law (such as jus cogens norms and human rights). Then, I examine some of the most prominent criticisms of ‘dignity’ on offer in the literature, and articulate a dilemma my account must avoid. Finally, I propose an alternative for identifying violations of ‘dignity’ for the purposes of international law. That is, violations of ‘dignity’ occur when there exists an agent (a), who provides or withholds their consent (c), and whether the act in question is considered permissible or impermissible by wide reflective equilibrium. Violations of ‘dignity,’ in short, are identified by the analysis of the relationship that holds between a, c, and r. The upshot of this understanding of ‘dignity’ are twofold. First, it avoids the criticisms commonly attributed to appeals to dignity. On my analysis ‘dignity’ is not reducible to the analysis of some other concept (such as ‘autonomy’), but rather identifies the relevant relationship that holds between an analysis of several constituent concepts. Second, I argue this conceptual framework can provide us with a foundation for a dignity-based account of international law that has superior explanatory power than traditional consent-based theories. My dignity-based account not only better explains commonly acknowledged features of international law (such as jus cogens norms and human rights), but also offers an explanation for why the consent of nation states occupies a particular important role in international law making.


Name: Essien Ukpe
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: essienukpe@aksu.edu.ng
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Akwa Ibom State University, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Panel Description: Paper not a panel
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  The European Union and the Future of the United States as a Major Super Power in Global Politics
Abstract:
THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE FUTURE OF THE UNITED STATES AS A MAJOR SUPER POWER IN GLOBAL POLITICS By: Essien Ukpe Ukoyo Ukpe Political Science Department Akwa Ibom State University P.M.B. 1167, Uyo Uyo, Akwa Ibom State Nigeria E-Mail: essienukpe@yahoo.com Phone: +234-802-504-0266 ABSTRACT This paper explored the post Cold War cooperation between the United States and the European Union with an effort to discover the implication of such cooperation for the status of the US as a major superpower in present day international politics. A subtle competition from the EU end of the relationship is discernible. Using a qualitative approach, the paper examined trade data released by the United States Census Bureau and the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis and also data provided by Eurostat and discovered that US imports exceeds its exports while the EU exports exceeds its imports. This accounts for the higher share of world trade by the EU vis-à-vis the US. Therefore, contrary to the realist prediction of the decline and final demise of Europe's global influence, the EU's global influence is actually on the rise. It is the conclusion of the study that if this trend continues, the EU will eventually surpass the US in strength and thereby put the EU at preponderance above the US in the future. It is recommended that the US should address the imbalance if it would maintain its preeminent position in global politics in the future.


Name: Reja Younis
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: rejayounis1@gmail.com
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: The University of Chicago
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Refugee Narrative in the United States: Presidential Securitization and the Role of Distance
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with whether geographical distance between a refugee group’s country of origin and host country (i.e. the United States) influences the translation of Presidential rhetoric into a media-based narrative. Through a qualitative analysis of newspapers and speeches from three Presidential administrations, I find that the treatment of refugees as an existential threat via speech act by the President (“securitized” rhetoric) results in a securitized narrative when refugees are from geographically distant countries relative to the United States. Treatment of refugees with compassion (“humanized” rhetoric) by a President equally leads to a securitizing narrative turn when refugees are from far away. In contrast, securitization fails and humanization triumphs when refugees are from geographically proximate countries. Fear eclipses compassion when refugees come from countries that are far removed from the United States.


Name: Shaoyu Yuan
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: foxshaoyu@gmail.com
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Northeastern University
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Behind the Conflict of Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands, the Pursuit of Asia Hegemony
Abstract:
Two superpowers, China and Japan, have been fighting over a tiny group of islands, impinging their diplomatic relations whilst refusing to compromise. With a comprehensive preamble on the history behind these disputed islands, this paper aims to reveal the significance and true interests hidden behind from geopolitical view and an economical perspective.



Political Theory

Name: Michael Gamkrelidze
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: gam1938@gmail.com
Professional Status:
Institution: Independent researcher
Scheduling Preference:
Proposal Type:
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: Democracy as State of Social Boundaries: An Attempt of the Systemic Approach  
Abstract:
ABSTRACT: In social sciences democracy is usually considered as political method founded on universal adult suffrage with confidential voting and majority’s right to elect government. In this essay, in contrast, democracy is regarded and analyzed as a certain state of the human society – an open steady state system of the “third order”. Since the various states of society are not limited in number, an attempt has been made to distinguish among them a few basic categories – capitalism, socialism and democracy, to find their intrinsic features and express them in terms of highest abstraction, thus making them comparable and quantifiable, what in perspective сould make possible to handle social sciences as rigorously, as natural sciences. The core notion of this approach, based on Schopenhauer’s philosophy and L. Bertalanffy’s systems theory, is that of social boundary. Social change is considered as changes of the state of social boundaries and so are analyzed the historical facts and events. Key words are: discrete and continuous states of social system, social boundary.


Name: Mirza Sadaqat Huda
Section:
Professional Email: mirzahuda@ntu.edu.sg
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: Nanyang Technological University
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Prof. Saleem Ali, University of Delaware
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: Energy diplomacy in South Asia: Beyond the security paradigm in accessing the TAPI pipeline project
Abstract:
On the 13th of December 2015, the leaders of Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India officially inaugurated the TAPI pipeline, which is set to be the largest cross-country energy infrastructure project undertaken in South Asia with an expected completion date of 2019. The limited literature on TAPI has almost exclusively focused on security impediments to the pipeline from the perspective of the member countries of the project. This paper argues that the solution to these impediments is greatly constrained by a reductionist rather than a multistakeholder approach. Using a broader understanding of the concept of energy diplomacy, this paper argues that energy infrastructure such as the TAPI can be used to encourage interdependency by expanding the number of stakeholders beyond the member countries of the project. While including the interests of external countries and institutions may build consensus on political issues, identifying ways by which the interests of communities can be addressed may reduce the explicit emphasis on the physical security of the pipeline by including human security concerns within the project’s blueprint. The cumulative impact of such an approach may create a shift in the perception of energy projects from the purview of security, to one of inclusive cooperation.


Name: Shafakat Mirza
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: shafakathassan@yahoo.co.in
Professional Status:
Institution: Kashmir University
Scheduling Preference:
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: Power-Knowledge-Morality triangle.
Abstract:
'Power is to politics what money is to economics' is a valid statement. When we are discussing politics we are basically talking about the relations of power. If we broaden politics to include all the things that Aristotle included in his definition or we narrow it to the colloquial use of the term, in both the cases politics is the process of deciphering power. In this paper, I wish to do the same but in a theoretical sense. What my paper and theory proposes is a way of looking at systems and relations of power from a prism which I term as Power – Knowledge – Morality Triangle, which basically demonstrates how the institutions of power from family right up to the superpowers use the systems of knowledge to create the sense of right and wrong, which we term as morality. This morality then works like a feedback mechanism strengthening the power structure, henceforth creating a vicious circle. In the process what is developed inside the triangle is what I call as the gravitational pull of the power system which makes it very difficult for people and societies to escape. The methodology that I have used is an extensive reading of literature from various fields of knowledge. I have substantiated my theory (besides other evidence) from the study of Anarchism and Feminism. I have analyzed the family structure as well as the schooling system. This will give the readers a deep insight into the theory. The conclusions that I draw are pretty evident from the theory itself – how structures of power use systems of knowledge to construct morality in order to strengthen the existing power structures. Besides, as a solution which comes out of this and not only gives us a comprehensive moral theory but also political solutions to innumerable issues is how we can change the prism by shifting the triangle as Knowledge-Morality-Power triangle which implies that instead of allowing the structures of power to use knowledge as a tool in shaping morality for their ends we start with rational knowledge itself as the guiding principle to shape morality which at times can justify a power structure to enforce it. Hence morality will not be constructed by power structures rather morality inspired by knowledge will give birth to the structures of power.


Name: Veena Soni
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: veenasony8@gmail.com
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: JAI NARAYAN VYAS UNIVERSITY JODHPUR (RAJ)
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: INDIVIDUAL PAPER
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  The Political Economy of Capitalism
Abstract:
Capitalism is often defined as an economic system where private actors are allowed to own and control the use of property in accord with their own interests, and where the invisible hand of the pricing mechanism coordinates supply and demand in markets in a way that is automatically in the best interests of society. Government, in this perspective, is often described as responsible for peace, justice, and tolerable taxes. This paper defines capitalism as a system of indirect governance for economic relationships, where all markets exist within institutional frameworks that are provided by political authorities, i.e. governments. In this second perspective capitalism is a three level system much like any organized sports. Markets occupy the first level, where the competition takes place; the institutional foundations that underpin those markets are the second; and the political authority that administers the system is the third. While markets do indeed coordinate supply and demand with the help of the invisible hand in a short term, quasi-static perspective, government coordinates the modernization of market frameworks in accord with changing circumstances, including changing perceptions of societal costs and benefits. In this broader perspective government has two distinct roles, one to administer the existing institutional frameworks, including the provision of infrastructure and the administration of laws and regulations, and the second to mobilize political power to bring about modernization of those frameworks as circumstances and/or societal priorities change. Thus, for a capitalist system to evolve in an effective developmental sense through time, it must have two hands and not one: an invisible hand that is implicit in the pricing mechanism and a visible hand that is explicitly managed by government through a legislature and a bureaucracy. Inevitably the visible hand has a strategy, no matter how implicit, short sighted or incoherent that strategy may be.


Name: Kumar Thangavelsamy
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: tkumar@xsrm.edu.in
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Xavier University, Bhubaneswar, India
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: Capital Vs. Digital Labour in the Information Age - A Marxist Analysis
Abstract:
In the third millennium AD, humanity has reached the phase of the Post-Industrial Information age. This age is characterized by the ubiquitous usage of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) in all aspects of social reality. ICTs are not just a tool for automation of social production but are qualitatively different from other preceding technologies. It can be understood that ICTs are situated at the cutting edge of current global Capitalism. There is a danger that ICTs are enhancing capitalist consumerism by converting the 'Complete human being' into the 'Complete consumer'. In this information age, a paradoxical social reality characterized by Geography without distance, History without time, Value without weight and Transactions without cash seems to be unfolding. The current “Post-Fordist” mode of production is qualitatively different from the earlier Fordist mode of production. In this historical context it becomes imperative to understand the dialectical relation between capital and labour. Rather than the “factory” being the locus of struggle between capital and labour, since service sector and white-collar work have become important, the locus of struggle between capital and labour has in some sense shifted to the “office”. ICT based workers can currently be considered as a “Class-in-itself”, rather than a “Class-for-itself”. A large proportion of the global workforce are increasingly working for the same transnational corporations. So, it is possible to some extent to unify the global proletariat under the soul stirring Marxist slogan “Workers of the world unite”. ICT enabled ‘Telework’ changes the ‘Political economy of the home’, so that more surplus value can be extracted. ICTs have influenced the contestation of time between capital and labour that has been happening all through the history of capitalism. ‘Telework’ and flexible production have influenced workers powers of collective bargaining. There are new challenges in organizing workers in the gig economy. When the ontological roots of ICTs are situated within the neo-Marxist Habermasian framework of critical theory, its potential for human emancipation is understood. But on the contrary, there is also a danger that ICTs may end up as a tool to consolidate and strengthen the existing powers of the bourgeoisie. The Gramscian notion of hegemony and Althusser’s concept of ISA (Ideological State Apparatus) may be getting reinforced by ICTs for social reproduction of the capitalist relations of production. After engaging with such issues, this paper surmises that the nature of the relation between capital and labour in the post-industrial information age is qualitatively different from the earlier industrial age. But nevertheless, it concludes that the possibilities of labour getting into a more just relation with capital and in the process bring about a more equitable global social order still exists.


Name: Robert Whelan
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: rwhelan1@binghamton.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: SUNY Binghamton
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: The Costs and Benefits of Prosecution: An Attempt to Justify the Costs of Amnesty to Human Security
Abstract:
Typically, given considerations of state security, a ‘principle of limited prosecutorial selection’ is adopted after large-scale conflicts have occurred. According to this principle prosecutions for violations of International Criminal Law should be limited to those in command positions while lower-level perpetrators are typically granted amnesty and incorporated into Disarmament Demobilization and Reintegration practices. Though a legal measure, amnesties are granted to secure the political end of security by incentivising beneficiaries to cease hostilities. Justifying the forgoing of prosecutions to secure such political ends typically relies on an appeal to aggregation; overall the expected benefit of social stability to be achieved through the disarmament of perpetrators is understood to outweigh the expected costs. Beginning from the assumption that there are strong moral reasons to adopt a ‘human security’ focus in the design of post-conflict peacebuilding strategies, I will argue that the moral justification for adopting a ‘principle of limited selection’ fails when it relies upon an appeal to aggregation. Part of the concern is that the costs associated with the adoption of such principles will be unevenly distributed. Such costs range from the threats to individual security entailed by the risks of recidivism to the normative costs incurred when the state fails to uphold its obligations to address instances of injustice against its citizens. As these costs will be unequally shared, certain citizens can expect to individually bear costs that are greater than the gains any other citizen can individually expect to receive. Those who expect to be placed at a net-disadvantage can object that adopting a principle of limited prosecutorial selection morally wrongs them as it imposes unreasonable burdens on them in order to secure aggregate benefits. However, the attempt to increase prosecutions would generate excessive material and strategic costs, such as motivating belligerents to return to hostilities, that a fragile state will be ill-equipped to manage. From the state’s perspective such a strategy would only destabilize the society, forgoing the political benefits to be gained from reduced prosecutions. Therefore, there are clear tensions between the state’s interest in maintaining security and the normative and legal arguments of international actors, who claim that state sovereignty is predicated on the responsibility to protect individual citizens. As increased prosecutions are not viable it is necessary to provide a justification for why the principle of limited selection does not morally wrong those affected. To advance this argument I will draw on Thomas Scanlon’s contractualist moral theory, developed in What We Owe to Each Other (1998). On Scanlon’s account justifying a principle requires the associated costs to be justified to each individual that is expected to bear them and not simply to the aggregate of citizens. A principle can be considered justified when each person affected has no reasonable objection strong enough to favour an alternative principle. By adopting the contractualist account it is possible to ensure that peacebuilding strategies can be used to achieve political goals in a way that is consistent with the normative constraints entailed by a ‘human security’ focus.



Identity Politics

Name: Nsemba Edward Lenshie
Section: Identity Politics
Professional Email: edward.lenshie@tsuniversity.edu.ng
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Taraba State University, Nigeria
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Land Tenure, Territoriality and Social Security: Interrogating Farmers-Herders Conflicts on Nigeria’s Mambilla Plateau
Abstract:
This study examines the interface of land tenure, territoriality and social security, with specific consideration of the farmers and herders conflicts on Nigeria’s Mambilla Plateau. The Mambilla Plateau is ethnically multicultural with the various ethnic groups claiming territoriality and land use for social security. Ethnic groups on the Mambilla Plateau include the Mambilla, Kaka, Panso, Kambu and Fulani, who are into farming of crops and grazing of cattle. Using qualitative and descriptive methods based on phenomenology and interpretivism, it reveals the complex dynamics of ethnic group relations, particularly between the Mambilla farming and Fulani pastoral groups. It also explains how changing land tenure system, territoriality and the demand for social security have shaped and reshapes ethnic group relations among other factors such as demand of land for farming due to population increase and land grab that accounted for the destruction of lives and properties and population displacement.


Name: Matthew Williams
Section: Identity Politics
Professional Email: WilliamsM7@cf.ac.uk
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Cardiff University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: Political turbulence as a trigger for hate crime and hate speech
Abstract:
Recent research has shown that the prevalence and severity of offline crimes with a prejudicial component are influenced in the short term by singular or clusters of events. In particular, political votes have been found to function as antecedent ‘trigger’ events that validate prejudicial sentiments and tensions, opening up a space for the spread of hostile beliefs and actions. The referendum on the future of the UK in the EU is used in this paper as an example of an event that motivated both offline and online hate crime and speech. The hypothesis is that the Brexit vote and associated Leave campaigns, represented an exogenous ‘shock’ that legitimised, for a temporary period, race and religious hate crimes towards members of the ‘out-group’ in an attempt to protect economic (e.g. threats to jobs, housing, NHS waiting times) and symbolic (e.g. threats to way of life) resources of the ‘in-group’. Such resources were increasingly portrayed as under threat from EU migrants by the Vote Leave, Leave.EU and UKIP campaigns in the weeks running up to the vote. A study on the press in the weeks leading up to the vote found immigration and the economy were the two most-covered issues in reportage described as acrimonious and divisive, with particular groups (Turkish and Polish) receiving negative treatment. While no empirical work exists on the Leave social media campaigns, evidence shows Facebook posts from German right-wing parties and Twitter posts from Donald Trump correlate with offline hate crime at particular points in time. We present results from a quasi-experimental multivariate interrupted time-series analysis that incorporates traditional and new forms of longitudinal data, to model the ‘intervention’ effect of the Brexit vote and Leave campaigns at the national level. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the results in the context of new modes of political campaigning. In particular, we make reference to the role played by Cambridge Analytica and partners in the Leave campaign and their use artificial intelligence to micro-target vulnerable voters, using unethically obtained social media data.



Public Policy and Public Administration

Name: Abdulaziz Almuslem
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: aalmusle@buffalo.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: State University of New York at Buffalo
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  How Democracy Improves the Investment Climate in Postcolonial and Other States
Abstract:
This research shows that the distinction between different conceptualizations of democracy is important if democracy aims to create a low-risk image of the postcolonial state that can help attract investment. Specifically, this research shows that the mere election process, without the normative component of protecting civil liberties in the postcolonial states, actually increases risk perception for investors thereby having an adverse effect on FDI and domestic capital. The implication of this research on the chances of civil conflict is important since wealthier states have a reduced chance of experiencing civil conflict, and attracting investment can help promote wealth.


Name: Mirza Sadaqat Huda
Section:
Professional Email: mirzahuda@ntu.edu.sg
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: Nanyang Technological University
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Prof. Saleem Ali, University of Delaware
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: Energy diplomacy in South Asia: Beyond the security paradigm in accessing the TAPI pipeline project
Abstract:
On the 13th of December 2015, the leaders of Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India officially inaugurated the TAPI pipeline, which is set to be the largest cross-country energy infrastructure project undertaken in South Asia with an expected completion date of 2019. The limited literature on TAPI has almost exclusively focused on security impediments to the pipeline from the perspective of the member countries of the project. This paper argues that the solution to these impediments is greatly constrained by a reductionist rather than a multistakeholder approach. Using a broader understanding of the concept of energy diplomacy, this paper argues that energy infrastructure such as the TAPI can be used to encourage interdependency by expanding the number of stakeholders beyond the member countries of the project. While including the interests of external countries and institutions may build consensus on political issues, identifying ways by which the interests of communities can be addressed may reduce the explicit emphasis on the physical security of the pipeline by including human security concerns within the project’s blueprint. The cumulative impact of such an approach may create a shift in the perception of energy projects from the purview of security, to one of inclusive cooperation.


Name: merve kayaduvar
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: merve.kayaduvar@deu.edu.tr
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: DOKUZ EYLUL UNIVERSITY, IZMIR TURKEY
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: comparative politics
Panel Description:
Co-author info: none
Co-presenter info: none
Paper Title: SECOND PHASE OF THE HEALTH TRANSFORMATION PROGRAMME IN TURKEY: CITY HOSPITALS AS A MODEL OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
Abstract:
Within the context of neoliberal policies which arose in the developed capitalist countries and have become in the ascendant all over the world since the late 1970s, in order to reduce public costs drastic changes emerged in the finance, organization and provision of most of the services carried out by the public such as health and education. Parallel to these worldwide developments, in Turkey, too, structural changes have realized in the healthcare field under the name of “reform” in the context of the neoliberal policies started to implement since the early 1980s. The most comprehensive one of these reform works was put into practice in 2003 with the Health Transformation Programme (HTP). In the framework of this programme; the finance of health services were started to be provided by the General Health Insurance (GHI), purchaser- provider split was introduced in the healthcare field, public primary care health service was abolished, in this context while community health center were closing, the family medicine model started, within the scope of marketization of health services, public hospitals were transformed into enterprise. As a complement of this fundamental transformation in healthcare sector, with a legislative regulation made in 2005, as a model of public private partnership described as “Second Phase of the Health Transformation Programme”, city hospitals were put into practice. This is targeted that along with six city hospitals opened as of August 2018 and with ongoing constructions and ongoing process of construction contracts, thirty two city hospitals render services. The focus of this study is the city hospitals introduced as the second phase of the HTP. The aim of the study is discussing the fundamental changes brought about by the city hospitals into the healthcare services while revealing legal and socio-economic background of the occurrence process of these hospitals. Because of being a very new phenomenon, there are not too many studies about the city hospitals in the literature. This study aims to contribute towards filling this gap even if it were limited. In this study made by using a qualitative research design, along with the literature review, legal legislation about in general public private partnership, in specific city hospitals was examined and varied reports, budget presentations, strategic plans published by the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Development, official statements, memoranda, press releases etc. were scanned.


Name: Ryunhye Kim
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: rkim10@stuy.edu
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: Independent Scholar
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: Rentier-States and the Development of a Domestic Workforce: The Case of Qatar
Abstract:
Qatar, like many other Gulf states with abundant natural resources, is a rentier state. The absence of taxation further suggests that Qatari citizens’ political loyalty can be commoditized and purchased. In examining how rentier states affect democracy and sustainable development, I clarify several rentier state features of Qatari governance, analyzing in particular how these features have influenced the development of the Qatari domestic workforce. These issues are then critically analyzed to compare observed practices in the rentier state model with results of earlier studies. This paper employs three primary categories of evidence: (1) a quantitative analysis of past welfare provided to Qatari nationals, (2) a qualitative study identifying the citizens’ reactions to such a system and (3) a longitudinal in-depth investigation on the development of Qatar’s labor force before and after the implementation of Qatar National Vision 2030, and the rise of the new regime. In analyzing the effectiveness and significance of Qatar’s new efforts to develop a domestic workforce as part of an era of increasingly international business, this study is part of a growing body of research on the reform-minded emir Hamad bin Khalifa’s initiatives designed to implement sustainable development in Qatar.


Name: Peter Mameli
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: pmameli@jjay.cuny.edu
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Policy Process and Policy Learning: The August 31, 2018 Ebola Outbreak in Democratic Republic of the Congo
Abstract:
In 2018 the Central African country of Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) experienced its tenth historical Ebola outbreak. Following on the heels of DRC epidemics in 2014, 2017 and earlier in 2018, this new occurrence continued to raise alarms that Africa is not secured from this virus. While DRC is considered to have been one of the countries on the continent with a successful record battling the disease once it has been loosed, there has been far less success preventing initial transmission from the environment to human populations. Important developments in the latest outbreak have included the dispensing of Ebola vaccinations for the second time ever in attempts to dampen disease spread, the emergence of the virus in a major DRC city, and the refinement of techniques and tools involving international governmental and non-governmental partners. Each of these areas provides academics and practitioners opportunities to examine our current state of knowledge regarding infectious disease management – especially in the developing world. In this paper I will review theories of policy process and policy learning in relation to DRC’s most recent experience with Ebola. From incrementalism to punctuated equilibrium, punctuated backsliding, multiple stream convergence and advocacy coalition involvement, the roots of policy process will be considered in these circumstances. Policy learning theories involving lesson drawing, innovation, diffusion, isomorphism and social learning will be considered as means of explaining improvement and failure in the ongoing implementation of Ebola management efforts. Although still ongoing, current reports from this epidemic suggest that punctuated equilibrium, innovation and diffusion will be useful frames for mining the latest trove of event information.


Name: Wil Pinkney
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: wil.pinkneyjr@gmail.com
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: CUNY Grad Center
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: N/A
Panel Description:
Co-author info: N/A
Co-presenter info: N/A
Paper Title:  Test
Abstract:
The is a test abstract.



State and Local Politics

Name: Amobi Peter Chiamogu
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: amobi.chiamogu@federalpolyoko.edu.ng
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Federal Polytechnic, Oko
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Uchechukwu P. Chiamogu, Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, uchep.chiamogu@federalpolyoko.edu.ng
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Ethnicity, Religion and Challenges of Governance in Africa: A Critical Analysis of the Nigerian Nation State
Abstract:
The mix in the politicization of ethnicity and religion with various communities especially among the minority ethnic groups across the country in response to skewed and arbitrary fragmentation and balkanization of the Nigerian state through the creation of regions, states, local government councils, jobs and disbursement of appointment positions largely shape and determine the 'how and what' of governance, character of politics and national integration in Nigeria. The central government became alien to the units where access to the government turned platform for religious and ethnic nationalism thereby occasioning the dawn of ethnicization and religionization of politics as a way of expressing the enticement of politicians and public officers to the ethnic or religious space. This paper thus seeks to trace the nexus between politicization of ethnicity and religion and the challenges to governance in Nigeria. It sees the duo as the major contending parameters for appraising Nigerian national questions. It through the use of secondary sources of data observed after an in-depth review of historical, unification and disintegrative forces literature for Nigeria, observed that the embers of kinship and religious ties have continually paved way for political support thereby forming the major desiderata for political/resources mobilization and allocation in Nigeria. While recommending significant devolution and decentralization of powers to be preceded by a nationwide programme of moral and ethical revival aimed at promoting virtues of honesty, transparency, accountability and justice, the paper makes case for good governance along lines of best practices at all levels of governance in Nigeria.


Name: Nsemba Edward Lenshie
Section: Identity Politics
Professional Email: edward.lenshie@tsuniversity.edu.ng
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Taraba State University, Nigeria
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Land Tenure, Territoriality and Social Security: Interrogating Farmers-Herders Conflicts on Nigeria’s Mambilla Plateau
Abstract:
This study examines the interface of land tenure, territoriality and social security, with specific consideration of the farmers and herders conflicts on Nigeria’s Mambilla Plateau. The Mambilla Plateau is ethnically multicultural with the various ethnic groups claiming territoriality and land use for social security. Ethnic groups on the Mambilla Plateau include the Mambilla, Kaka, Panso, Kambu and Fulani, who are into farming of crops and grazing of cattle. Using qualitative and descriptive methods based on phenomenology and interpretivism, it reveals the complex dynamics of ethnic group relations, particularly between the Mambilla farming and Fulani pastoral groups. It also explains how changing land tenure system, territoriality and the demand for social security have shaped and reshapes ethnic group relations among other factors such as demand of land for farming due to population increase and land grab that accounted for the destruction of lives and properties and population displacement.


Name: Augustine Ogbaji Ogoh
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: aogoh@fudutsinma.edu.ng
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: FEDERAL UNIVERSITY, DUTSINMA, KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE DYNAMICS OF PERENNIAL FARMER-HERDER CONFLICTS IN PLATEAU STATE OF NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA, 1999 – 2016
Abstract:
CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE DYNAMICS OF PERENNIAL FARMER-HERDER CONFLICTS IN PLATEAU STATE OF NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA, 1999 – 2016 By Augustine Ogbaji OGOH Department of Political Science Federal University, Dutsinma Katsina State, Nigeria aogoh@fudutsinma.edu.ng ABSTRACT ______________________________________________________________________________ Climate change today represents the greatest global human development challenge and one of such challenges is the farmer-herder conflicts. Consequently, the main objective of the study is to explore the dynamics of the perennial farmer-herder conflicts in Plateau State of north central Nigeria resulting from climate change. Climate change and farmer-herder conflicts concept in this study comprise of various interrelated components that include among others month in which farming activities of the year normally starts; uncertainty in the rainfall pattern in the last 17 years; effects of uncertainty of rainfall on farming activities; level of migration of herders; month of the year that migration normally takes place for grazing of livestock; effects of desertification and causes of farmer-herder conflicts. Data for this study were obtained from 384 respondents sampled through a multi-stage sampling procedure. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Three (3) Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and interviews were conducted to enhance the reliability of the findings. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequency distribution. Findings show among others a significant relationship between climate change and farmer-herder conflicts in Plateau state of north central Nigeria. From these findings, the study inferred that farmer-herder conflicts have been exacerbated by the phenomenon of climate change, whose dynamics tend to have been aggravating natural resource conflicts across the world and submitted that these conflicts situation have far reaching implications. It recommends the creation of grazing corridors and ranches rather than creating grazing reserves in order to solve the issue of herders encroachment on farmlands and vice versa. Keywords: Climate change, Conflict, Farmer, Herder, Migration ______________________________________________________________________________


Name: Lisa Parshall
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: lparshal@daemen.edu
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Daemen College
Scheduling Preference:
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  The Use of Narrative Policy Framing in the Village Dissolution Debate: Social Media Messaging in the Brockport and Lyons Dissolution Efforts
Abstract:
Parshall (2018), explored the applicability of the Narrative Policy Framework (NPF) to the village dissolution debate. In that paper, I explored whether common narratives detected in the public debate over village dissolution could be understood through the lens of its narrative components (i.e., plot, characters, setting, and moral of the study), and whether a meso-level focus on village dissolution–how pro- and anti-dissolution coalitions seek to influence the outcome of a public vote on dissolution–aligns with the NFP assumptions as spelled out by Shanahan, Jones and McBeth (2017). The initial exploration of 3 cases studies drew primarily upon newspaper accounts and media coverage in identifying common policy narratives in the village dissolution debate. This paper moves a step-closer toward empirical verification by shifting focus to the webpages and Facebook accounts of the pro-dissolution and anti-dissolution coalitions in 2 cases to test theories that were developed (although not explicitly stated) in Parshall (2018).



Teaching and Learning

Name: Anita Chadha
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: chadhaa@uhd.edu
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: university of houston, downtown
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description: Teaching and learning in the digital age
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Academic deliberation in an international collaboration: nuances among students in the U.S. and Korea.
Abstract:
With the growth of online courses, academic researchers have been evaluating the academic viability of these online offerings. Past research on a cross-country online collaboration among students from Texas, New York and California find that students discuss current and controversial issues in American politics with “academic/reflectivity” in their discussions with each other. “Academic reflectivity” was computed as a compound variable measuring deliberative, reflective posts and responses, using class or text references, posing questions that furthered academic discussions and the length of the post suggesting thorough discussions. For this presentation, one semester of data from fall 2018 will be analyzed across international boundaries that between a class in Houston, TX in the U.S. and a class offered at a university in Korea. It is anticipated that their discussions will be academically reflective, and that they will be tolerant and respectful of each other in online spaces. This study will be among the first about the significant impact of online discussions promoting and enhancing the experience of e-learners and collaborative endeavors internationally.


Name: Renias Ngara
Section: Teaching and Learning
Professional Email: rngara@gzu.ac.zw
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: University of Pretoria
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Professor Meki Nzewi, University of Pretoria
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Towards sustainable rural development in the Shangwe chiefdoms of Zimbabwe: A participant community-State model for harnessing the arts
Abstract:
The paper seeks to explore how the arts may be harnessed to promote sustainable rural development. Studies have shown that community people are not empowered for the betterment of their localities. UNESCO Convention of 2003, calls for the preservation of heritage and empowerment of rural communities. Zimbabwe became a member state of this organisation in 1972. Similarly, the 2013 Constitution of the Republic Zimbabwe as well as the Ministry of Rural Development, Promotion and Preservation of National Culture and Heritage of 2015 spell out that chiefs are at the helm of rural development. The findings of this ethnography indicate that: there is a practical gap that exists between the UNESCO provision and the State practice; chiefs are not empowered to deliver rural development; and indigenous arts talents are underutilised. This research suggests how talents may be harnessed for employment creation. Thus, the study proposes a practical model for the preservation and management of heritage for sustainable rural development. The UNESCO and the State may empower chiefs through collaborative participations. Keywords: arts; talents; community-based indigenous instruments manufacturing industries; community-based performance centres; community-based indigenous libraries



Undergraduate Research

Name: Israel Chora
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: israelchora@ucsb.edu
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: University of California, Santa Barbara
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  The Majority-Minority State: An Examination of Latinx Political Engagement
Abstract:
The Latinx population is the largest ethnic group in California (Pew Research Center, 2014). This population experiences low educational attainment and earned income (Gutierrez and Zavalla, 2009). These inequalities have a negative effect on civic engagement and political efficacy (Brady, Verba Schlozman, 1995). This paper explores how material inequality, parental socialization and resources such as available time, affect Latinx youth civic engagement. To investigate this phenomenon we conducted an in-person survey targeting youth in the Santa Barbara-Isla Vista areas. Preliminary results show that material inequality and parental socialization are key to understanding low Latinx political engagement.



Contact Us

New York State Political Science Association
email: info@nyspsa.org
NYSPSA is a 501(c)3 organization.

Follow Us

Built by on