Abstract Review

American Politics

Name: Harry Blain
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: CUNY Graduate Center
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: AP_1 The Presidency & Congress
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Paper Title: Legislating Against Liberties: Congressional Repression in the United States After the Second World War
Abstract:
Constitutional scholars have long feared the impact of war on presidential power. Their logic is straightforward: citizens, courts, and legislatures defer and delegate to executives during crises. Although this deference and delegation is justified by the need for swift emergency action, the potential for abuse is obvious. Through some combination of apathy, fear, and self-aggrandizement, extraordinary powers can become routinized over time. Exceptions can become norms, permanently damaging civil liberties. In this article, I question these widely held concerns by examining political repression in the United States after the Second World War. I argue that while the war was characterized by far-reaching and unprecedented exercises of executive power, postwar assaults on civil liberties overwhelmingly emanated from the legislature. I demonstrate how legislation itself was relatively marginal to congressional repression, overshadowed by congressional powers over investigations, courts, and the bureaucracy. I conclude by exploring the extent to which my analysis can be applied to other cases, particularly the ongoing war on terror.


Name: Daniel Bonsangue
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Le Moyne College
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  The Decline of Local Journalism and the Increasing Political Polarization of the US Electorate
Abstract:
Ideologically, America is more polarized than it's ever been. Members of each party harbor more disdain for each other than ever before, and they increasingly share less and less in common, in terms of race, income, education level, geographic location, religious adherence and, more recently, views on the COVID-19 pandemic. Essentially, Americans are living in Republican and Democrat "bubbles", or areas where most people share their ideology and they are unlikely to run into someone who holds an opposing view. Moderates are no longer running for office, and more and more counties are becoming "landslide counties" in presidential elections- areas where the voting outcome wasn't even close between the two candidates. What can be causing this growing divide? Research has suggested that the "echo-chamber" of social media is to blame, and this is likely true. This problem is exacerbated, however, by the decline of local journalism. The fact is that most counties- 60%- in the US do not have a local newspaper, leading to bad policy, a lack of participation in local politics, and increasing political polarization as voters turn to national news (Fox News, CNN, MSNBC, OAN, Newsmax, etc) and social media for their information. This problem exists in most of the country- 1,300 communities across the US are without local news coverage, and thousands more have inadequate news coverage. Since 2005, 2,100 local newspapers have closed down for good. Only once we stem this tide of local news closures can the United States begin to address its division and polarization problems.


Name: Danny Bonsangue
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Le Moyne College
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  The Decline of Local Journalism and the Increasing Political Polarization of the US Electorate
Abstract:
Ideologically, America is more polarized than it's ever been. Members of each party harbor more disdain for each other than ever before, and they increasingly share less and less in common, in terms of race, income, education level, geographic location, religious adherence and, more recently, views on the COVID-19 pandemic. Essentially, Americans are living in Republican and Democrat "bubbles", or areas where most people share their ideology and they are unlikely to run into someone who holds an opposing view. Moderates are no longer running for office, and more and more counties are becoming "landslide counties" in presidential elections- areas where the voting outcome wasn't even close between the two candidates. What can be causing this growing divide? Research has suggested that the "echo-chamber" of social media is to blame, and this is likely true. This problem is exacerbated, however, by the decline of local journalism. The fact is that most counties- 60%- in the US do not have a local newspaper, leading to bad policy, a lack of participation in local politics, and increasing political polarization as voters turn to national news (Fox News, CNN, MSNBC, OAN, Newsmax, etc) and social media for their information. This problem exists in most of the country- 1,300 communities across the US are without local news coverage, and thousands more have inadequate news coverage. Since 2005, 2,100 local newspapers have closed down for good. Only once we stem this tide of local news closures can the United States begin to address its division and polarization problems.


Name: Sam Edwards
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Quinnipiac University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Jacob Park, Ph.D., Green Mountain College, [email protected]
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Paper Title: Recognizing recovery for cultural damages in ecosystem damage and forced relocation cases.
Abstract:
Indigenous communities are often closely tied to their lands. When those lands are harmed through events such as environmental disasters and forced relocation, the communities suffer many harms including harms to their culture. These impacts are especially acute in island communities and other communities with unique lands. Although claims for damage to culture have traditionally been denied, there is an emerging body of law that permits recovery for impacts to culture. This type of damage should be compensated, and courts are the proper place to expand this doctrine of recovery for cultural damage. This research examines three jurisdictions which have recognized recovery for cultural damage. First, this paper examines the Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims case. Although this was an extreme case of forced relocation, it helped establish some of the first precedent for cultural damage. The second section shows how the Stolen Generations Litigation in Australia is helping advance recovery for cultural damage. The final section examines a series of cases involving Native American claims both in tribal courts and in federal courts. Furthering this emerging doctrine would help protect the culture of indigenous communities and is consistent with existing theories of compensation. It is essential that courts in common law jurisdictions should continue to expand cultural damage recoveries especially as climate change forces communities from their lands.


Name: Philip Grant
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Pace University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Congressional Committee Chairmen from New York, 2001-2020 
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper will be to provide a composite profile of congressional committee chairmen from the State of New York between 2001 and 2020. Theses chairmen and their respective committees were: Representatives Benjamin A. Gilman(Foreign Affairs), Peter T. King (Homeland Security), Charles Rangel (Ways and Means), Louise Slaughter(Rules), Jerrold Nadler (Judiciary), Eliot L. Engel (Foreign Affairs), Carolyn B. Maloney (Oversight and Government Reform), and Nita M. Lowey (Appropriations). The eight chairmen, accumulating considerable seniority over several decades, served an aggregate total of two hundred fifty-two years on Capitol Hill.


Name: jeffrey kraus
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Administrator
Institution: Wagner College
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Health Policy in the Empire State: Is the Affordable Care Act affordable?, *Jeffrey Fred Kraus
Abstract:
Notwithstanding Joe Biden's overwhelming victory in New York state, President Trump increased the vote for a Republican presidential candidate in Latino neighborhoods of New York. Trump's vote total was higher in the south Bronx and east Harlem, and Biden's share of the vote in these communities was lower than Clinton's total in 2016. This result, along with Republican inroads in Miami and border areas of Texas, suggests that the Democratic Party's message is not resonating with this community. In this paper, I will discuss whether this is the beginning of a long-term trend or an aberration.


Name: Sari Krieger Rivera
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: City University of New York
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Incentivizing Injustice: Why no high-level executive prosecutions from the financial crisis?
Abstract:
More than ten years after the financial crisis of 2008, which sparked America’s Great Recession, many citizens are still asking why no high-level bank executives were prosecuted for criminal fraud. This question is perplexing given that many powerful executives faced jail time during the Enron-era accounting scandals of the early 2000s and the savings and loan crisis of the early 1990s. This sense of injustice Americans felt in the wake of one of the biggest economic disasters of their lifetimes has had reverberating political consequences, such as populist movements like Occupy Wall Street and populist political campaigns from Bernie Sanders and Donald Trump in 2016. Many have offered seemingly plausible, yet shallow explanations, such as campaign donations and political connections buy freedom from prosecution. However, this explanation falls short because wealthy campaign donors existed in the previous crises where they did face jail time for their fraudulent behavior. The clubby atmosphere between Washington and Wall Street, and presidential decision-making have also been cited as popular explanations. I ultimately reject them as less compelling explanations in favor of the internal incentive structure of the Justice Department itself and external incentives for prosecutors. Prosecutorial discretion is an underappreciated and under studied topic in political science literature, considering its vast power and importance to American society. The discretion prosecutors have to bring cases and the incentives they face are important areas of study for American justice and societal equity.


Name: Adam McGlynn
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: East Stroudsburg University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Maura Daltwas, East Stroudsburg University, [email protected]
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Paper Title:  Understanding Millennial and Generation Z Opinions of the American Election System
Abstract:
For more than a decade scholars have attempted to analyze the views of millennials and more recently Generation Z to assess their impact on the economy, public opinion and world affairs (see for example Fisher 2019, Parker, et al., 2019). For the most part, the conclusion has been that these groups hold views that are more progressive than older generations. Now, more than ever in recent history, the health and future of our democracy are at question in the face of government’s handling of the COVID-19 pandemic, racism, and the operation of our elections. The latter is the focus of this work. Using Pew Research’s 2018 American Trends Panel dataset, we estimate a series of logistic regression methods to understand how millennials and Generation Z view the American electoral process and their faith in the American election system. Millions of Americans voted by mail in November of 2020 with others unable to vote due to the purging of voter rolls and Voter ID laws so it is imperative that we understand how millennials and Generation Z view the American electoral system as they elect public officials and enter public office themselves to possibly reform it. We find that young people while believing elections are conducted fairly, feel voting is too difficult and needs to be reformed.


Name: Chandrasekhar Putcha
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: California State University, Fullerton
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Dr. Brian Sloboda Vineet Penumarthy
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Paper Title:  Development of a Mathematical Model for prediction of the winner in 2020 American Presidential election
Abstract:
Development of a Mathematical Model for prediction of the winner in 2020 American Presidential election Dr. Chandrasekhar Putcha, Fellow ASCE Professor, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering CSUF’s 2007 Outstanding Professor Dr. Brian Sloboda, Economist, University of Phoenix, School of Advanced Studies, Center for Management and Entrepreneurship Vineet Penumarthy, Design Engineer CSUF graduate, 2016 B.S. mechanical engineering Abstract A mathematical model was developed using engineering analysis based on the principles of probability and statistics. Polling data for the general election from well-known and credible sources (ie. Survey Monkey/Tableau, Survey USA, YouGov/CBS, ABC/Washington Post). The basic premise is that polls will capture the pulse of the people. The model used is a dynamic model, dependent on timing of the poll and political events surrounding the country at that time. Density function of the polling data is constructed, the validity of which is checked using the well known chi-square test. The mathematical analysis showed that the polling data followed a normal distribution. This was followed by the determination of the parameters of the normal distribution and finally the probability of the winning of each candidate (in the 2020 American Presidential election, it is Biden of Democratic party and Trump of Republican Party). The developed mathematical model predicts both the final popularity vote as well as the electoral college votes. The mathematical used predicted popularity vote for Biden and Trump as 49.22% and 45.58% respectively and electoral college votes of 350 and 188 respectively which is pretty close and within the statistical margin compared to the actual American Presidential election results. Another important observation that can be made is that the “silent majority” that helped President Trump in 2016 didn’t play any significant role in 2020 American Presidential elections which would have skewed the results.


Name: Sean Shannon
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: SUNY Oneonta
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Cultural Contradictions: Reinterpreting Trademark Law through the Roberts’ Court’s First Amendment Jurisprudence
Abstract:
Please note: The following abstract was accepted for the 2020 NYSPSA Conference at Manhattan College, which was postponed. Cultural Contradictions: Reinterpreting Trademark Law through the Roberts’ Court’s First Amendment Jurisprudence Section 2(a) of the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1052(a), outlines the guidelines for the United States Patent and Trademark Office to determine words or phrases that can be trademarked. In 2017 the Supreme Court issued an opinion in the case of Matel v.Tam declaring the Lanham Act’s prohibition on registering “disparaging” trademarks unconstitutional in violation of the First Amendment’s free speech clause. The case concerned the punk rock band, The Slants, a disparaging reference to Asians. This past June, the Court continued to limit the Lanham Act in the case of Iancu v. Brunetti, when it declared the prohibition on “immoral” and “scandalous” trademarks unconstitutional, permitting the registration of the word FUCT as a trademark. Since joining the Supreme Court, Chief Justice John Roberts has led a revolution in First Amendment jurisprudence. Much of the focus has been on religious cases, but less noticed have been to the changes in trademark law, commercial speech, which represent an interesting cultural contradiction for conservative Supreme Court justices and worthy of further analysis and discussion. The paper will evaluate and address the cultural contradictions of permitting disparaging, scandalous, and immoral trademarks and the reasons why the Roberts Court may be leading the change.


Name: Brian Sloboda
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: University of Phoenix
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Chandrasekhar Putcha, California State University at Fullerton, [email protected] Vineet Penumarthy, California State University at Fullerton
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Paper Title:  Development of a Mathematical Model in the Prediction in the 2020 Presidential Election
Abstract:
A mathematical model was developed using engineering analysis based on the principles of probability and statistics. Polling data for the general election from well-known and credible sources (ie. Survey Monkey/Tableau, Survey USA, YouGov/CBS, ABC/Washington Post). The basic premise is that polls will capture the pulse of the people. The model used is a dynamic model, dependent on the timing of the poll and political events surrounding the country at that time. The density function of the polling data is constructed, the validity of which is checked using the well-known chi-square test. The mathematical analysis showed that the polling data followed a normal distribution. This was followed by the determination of the parameters of the normal distribution and finally the probability of the winning of each candidate (in the 2020 American Presidential election, it is Biden of the Democratic party and Trump of the Republican Party). The developed mathematical model predicts both the final popular vote as well as the Electoral College votes. The mathematical used predicted popularity vote for Biden and Trump as 49.22% and 45.58% which is consistent with the statistical margin compared to the actual American Presidential election results. Another important observation that can be made is that the “silent majority” that helped President Trump in 2016 did not appear to play any significant role as in the 2020 American Presidential elections which could have skewed the results.


Name: Jared Stefani
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: United States Military Academy at West Point
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Party, Polarization, Parochialism, and Constituents: Senate Voting on Defense Spending from 1997-2018
Abstract:
The defense budget remains one of the most contentious pieces of legislation each year due to its size when compared to other discretionary spending. In general, the debate over defense spending levels falls into two core camps: (1) those that argue the defense budget takes too much of the national budget, which is perpetuated by the so-called military-industrial-complex; and (2) those that argue that while the defense budget is large, it is ‘right-sized’ for the national security objectives set-forth by U.S. elected officials. However, there is limited research on what influences Senators to vote for and against defense spending. This paper aims to examine the determinants of Senate voting on defense spending by using a multivariate logistic regression model with eleven (11) explanatory variables measured between 1997 and 2018. The findings suggest a Senator’s political party, ideology, sex, and state economic interests best predict Senate voting on defense spending. Other characteristics such as a Senator’s veteran status and committee assignment play a role, but it is subsidiary. In contrast, being in party leadership, the size of the military presence, and the number of military accessions within their state do not shape Senate voting. This examination helps predict support for defense spending and the future of defense appropriations legislation within the U.S. Senate.


Name: Adam Stone
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Georgia State University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  A Legacy of Political Polarization in the Senate: Trump’s Circuit Court Judges
Abstract:
Prior to the Trump Administration, final U.S. Senate confirmation votes on nominees to the U.S. Courts of Appeals were voice votes and those that were tallied provided lopsided majorities in favor of the nominee. In one term, President Trump filled 30% of the 179 judgeships and changed the partisan makeup of several circuits so that Republican nominees now control the majority of circuits. The aggressive nomination and confirmation process further polarized the Senate. As Parshall and Twombly’s Directing the Whirlwind: The Trump Presidency and the Deconstruction of the Administrative State (2020) points out, Trump has gone to extraordinary lengths to appoint conservative judges dedicated to diminishing the power of the federal government. This paper uses OLS regression analysis to examine the final U.S. Senate confirmation votes on the 54 Trump nominees during the 115th and 116th Congresses. Most of these votes are close to the party division in the chamber. For those nominees who receive support beyond the party division, diversity in race and gender as well as previous judicial service at the state or federal level increased levels of support on final confirmation. Membership in The Federalist Society is a significant factor in limiting support for nominees. While the legacy of battles over Trump’s appellate nominees has further polarized the Senate, individual senators do act like baseball umpires and “call them as they see them” for each nominee.


Name: Eric Svensen
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Sam Houston State University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Comparing Legislative Productivity across Time and Space
Abstract:
Previous research on legislative productivity has focused much of its attention on the total number of enactments, in particular landmark legislation, to gauge presidential and congressional success. These measures are used to not only rank the policy successes of presidents but are also used to compare the accomplishments of unified and divided governments. While this approach conveys some sense of legislative performance, in reality this measurement practice can both over and underestimate policy achievements. This practice, for example, raises numerous questions as to whether presidents with large congressional majorities underperformed relative to comparable governing circumstances (or, in contrast, whether chief executives sharing political power with the political opposition over-perform). To answer these questions, this study creates a measure that places all legislative enactments since 1789 into a single base metric that adjusts for legislative enactments for all congressional terms and presidential administrations that is comparable across time and space. Preliminary evidence suggests landmark legislation is not always a viable predictor of legislative productivity.


Name: Jim Twombly
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Elmira College
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: AP-2 Voting Choice
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Paper Title:  Delegitimizing the Presidency: Narrow Victories, Popular Vote Losers, Impeachment, and Insurrection.
Abstract:
The insurrection that took place on January 6, 2021, was many things, but it was in a very large way the culmination of a multi-decade set of events that have called into question the legitimacy of the many individuals who have occupied the office of President of the United States and as a result the office itself. These events sometimes derived from a characteristic or failing of the individual and sometimes a result of particular political or historical circumstances. As a result of the insurrection and the “Big Lie” about the stolen election, Joe Biden enters office as yet the latest in a long line of presidents who have had to address, one way or another, the issue of their own legitimacy.For decades, political scientists have endeavored to categorize both presidents and the institution of the presidency. Regarding individual presidents, a good portion of this effort has focused on the psychological make-up of the individual (e.g., Barber 2008, Renshon 2013 & 2020, George & George 1998) or the exigent political circumstances (see Twombly 2013, Rose 1989, and MacKenzie 2017 for example).Close electoral results, assassination, impeachments, resignations, questioned birth certificates, and more have been at the center of both claiming that individual presidents are not legitimate and have helped delegitimize the institution, often forcing its occupants to employ extraordinary measures to accomplish their policy goals. This treatment traces the path of delegitimization as far back as Kennedy’s narrow victory over Richard Nixon up to Trump’s attacks on the legitimacy of Biden’s election. Parallels will be made between this delegitimizing history and declining trust in government.


Name: Gabriella Walker
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Wagner College
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Environmental Investment in the ACA’s Preventative
Abstract:
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) seeks to reform the United States health care system. Though its efforts are expansive, its success has been disputed. We predict that by using funding allocated to the Prevention and Public Health Fund to increase community environmental infrastructure, sustainable mitigation of leading chronic illnesses may be accomplished. We compiled raw data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and local government statistics to evaluate such theories in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This data was compared to scholarly sources dedicated to the intersection of public and environmental health to determine efficiency of both public and private funding utilization within the city. Based on these findings, we found that green initiatives may parallel decreased chronic disease on a community level.



Comparative Politics

Name: Anonymous
Section: Comparative Politics
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Paper Title: How Corporatist Institutions Determine Paths of Financialization and Shape Welfare Generosity
Abstract:
The welfare state is known as a reliable source of alleviation against inequality through the effect of decommodification—the protection of individuals from social and market risks through social programs. Yet, in recent decades, demographic and economic changes have financially strained welfare states, placing them in a state of “retrenchment,” a shift from original progressive goals to neo-liberal, fiscally conservative goals that tie eligibility to work requirements. Increasingly, governments are relying on private actors and markets for social provision and offsetting the responsibility of risk management onto the individual. In this paper, I examine how this phenomenon—financialization—interacts with welfare retrenchment in advanced democracies. Although some have posited national convergence, more scholars have noted significant cross-national variation in how financialization is adopted (Huber and Stephens 2001; Swank 2002; Pontusson 2005; Streeck and Thelen 2005). The question motivated by this study is, then, what explains the variation of financialization reforms in social welfare? Since financialization generally exacerbates inequality, the answer is crucial to understanding how responsive welfare states are to rising inequality in a market-driven era. I argue that industrial relations systems determine how financialization practices are adopted and shape welfare state retrenchment. In countries with strong corporatist institutions, social partners (labor and business) adapt to the growing role of markets, all the while maintaining mutually beneficial labor market agreements, therefore, buffering the extent of retrenchment. On the one hand, strong unions and employer associations in corporatist countries solidify employee representation, incentivize employers to support social policies, and limit employers’ pursuit of self-serving financial interests at the expense of socially-desirable objectives. On the other hand, the stakeholder model of the firm is supportive of long-term financial and social goals like retirement and employment security in addition to the short-term goal of profitability. Although financialization efforts are indeed growing, corporatism tends to moderate the extent of welfare retrenchment. In short, I argue that macrocorporatism acts as a moderating variable between financialization and welfare retrenchment. I provide OLS regression analysis using panel data on nineteen OECD countries from 1975-2010. I look at the effect of macrocorporatism (a composite variable I construct using indicators for the level of collective bargaining, employer organizational density, union density, and union centralization from Jelle Visser’s ICTWSS database), financialization (the share of stock market capitalization of GDP), and an interactive term comprising the two, on the dependent variable—welfare generosity (using an index constructed by Scruggs, Jahn, and Kuitto (2017)). The main finding is that the effect of financialization on welfare generosity shrinks as macrocorporatism grows, and vise versa. I.e., there is a conditional relationship between macrocorporatism and financialization and statistical evidence of the buffering effect. In addition, I provide qualitative case studies of the US and Germany to capture more fine-grained variations of retrenchment. The case studies support the results of the statistical analysis by demonstrating divergent responses to the financialization of health insurance in the US on the one hand, and growing employer-based pensions in Germany on the other.


Name: Tem Alabi
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: National Open University of Nigeria
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Gender and Politics: The Nigerian Experience
Abstract:
In most political discourse men are regarded as political or intellectual subjects while women continue to be largely marginalized from the political sphere. Nigerian women are still some distance away from gender equity and balancing and this is often as a result of discriminatory laws, practices, attitudes and gender stereotypes, low levels of education, lack of access to health care and the disproportionate effect of poverty on women. This paper examines these obstacles; it explores how women interact with political structures and how they mobilize themselves to impact the state, society, and legal systems as well as regional and international systems. Thus, it studies Nigerian women’s participation in the political arena, their challenges and struggles for their rights and their impact on their countries’ laws and policies drawing example from the American democracy. The paper further emphasises the importance of valuing women in a society that has long devalued their contributions with special reference to the emergence of a black female American president. It concludes that while women have made inroads in many areas, traditionally gendered needs should be recast in order to liberate women and recommends that the playing field needs to be level, opening opportunities for all. KEYWORDS: Culture, Gender, Democracy, Elections.


Name: Mehmet Evrim Altin
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: International University of bad honnef
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Modern Religion War in Turkey: Erdogan’s National Political Islam against Gülen’s Global Social Islam
Abstract:
Unlike the expectations of the founders of Turkish Republic, religion, specifically Islam, increased its power and influence in Turkish society exponentially especially after the nineteen- fifties. Two channels, such as Erbakan’s political Islamic movement, so-called National View, and Said Nursi’s social Islam movement, so-called Nur Movement, played crucial roles in this increase and despite the pressure of the secular state, they achieved remarkable success in expanding Islamic understanding to the society. Their followers, Erdogan from the political wing and Gülen from the social wing, used their legacies wisely and defeated the secular part of the society in the last two decades. However, unlike founders Erbakan and Said Nursi, Erdogan and Gülen started to fight in the political scene in Turkish society and today these two movements blame each other of being heretical and blasphemy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the main differences in these two movements and why these two movements waged war against each other despite their common religious understanding. A qualitative research design is used to study this issue. Semi-structured expert interviews are conducted with experts of the subject. The results show that because of the ideological differences between political Islam and social Islam approaches, there are remarkable differences between Erdogan and Gülen. Besides, both Erdogan and Gülen, transformed the legacies of Erbakan and Said Nursi from different perspectives. Erdogan mixed Erbakan’s international Islamic understanding with Turkish nationalism and built a national right wing alliance, which is promoting neo-Ottomanism. On the other hand, Gülen transformed Said Nursi’s local social Islamic understanding to an international social network with different type of institutions, such as schools, help organizations and interfaith-dialog institutions. His movement promotes global understanding based on global ethics and trade. Turkey and Turkish society inside and outside of Turkey are the major sources of these movements, which is one of the other reasons behind the fight, especially after the failed coup attempt. Keywords—Gülen Movement, Erdogan Administration, National View Movement, Political Islam, Social Islam, Nationalism.


Name: Ikenna Alumona
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Anambra State
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Aniche Ernest Federal University Otuoke, Bayesla State, Nigeria [email protected]
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Paper Title: Responsibility without power: Federalism and the Dilemma of Internal Security Management in Nigeria 
Abstract:
Security has taken the centre stage in political discourse in Nigeria like in most developing countries. Across the different geo political zones in the country, different factors of insecurity have continued to take a heavy toll on lives and properties. Yet, the challenge of maintaining security in the country is compounded by the nature and character of Nigeria’s federal governance structure that vests the sole constitutional responsibility of security maintenance on the federal government leaving the constituent states with no formal control over the security forces. This paper argues that the contradictions of Nigeria’s federal governance is not only undermining the maintenance of security but has compounded the inability of federal government to adequately supervise the pervasive and increasing involvement of vigilante groups, private security companies and ethnic militias in internal security management. Keywords: Security, Federalism, Internal Security Management and Governance.


Name: Yahaya Baba (Abubakar Mohammed - co-author)
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Abubakar Mohammed, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, [email protected]
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Paper Title: Legislative Institutionalization in Nigeria (1999-2019)
Abstract:
This study examines the trends and challenges of legislative institutionalisation in Nigeria from 1999 to 2019. Legislative institutionalisation is broadly assumed to be influenced by three major variables: legislative boundaries; internal complexity; and universal procedures of legislative decision making. Accordingly, the study is guided by three broad research questions: to what extent does boundedness influence legislative institutionalisation in Nigeria? to what extent does internal complexity affect legislative institutionalisation in Nigeria? to what extent does the Nigerian legislature adopt and implement universal legislative principles and procedures? These three broad questions formed the framework of analysis. The new institutionalism is adopted as the theoretical guide for the study. The blend of both formal and informal rules and practices explain the pattern of institutionalization of the Nigerian legislature. Methodologically, qualitative approach is adopted in the investigation with a case study design. Specifically, in-depth interviews and documentary evidence are the main instruments employed the purpose of data collection. The study is thus limited to the Nigeria’s National Assembly (NASS) (the two chambers of the House of Representatives and the Senate). Respondents are purposively selected for interviews. They include members of the two chambers of the National Assembly, legislative staff and aides, members of the Civil Society Organizations, Party Officials and experts. In the light of the preliminary analysis, the study found that the boundaries of NASS are porous. Other institutions and agencies directly and indirectly exercised tremendous influence on the legislature. The high membership and leadership turnover in both Houses of NASS indicates the extent of this porousness. This is caused largely by the lack of strong political parties, executive meddling, corruption and the formalisation of sharing and rotating political offices among the geo-political zones of the country. These factors also influenced the internal organisation of NASS, which undermines its internal complexity and makes the application of universal principle of legislative process difficult. Given these trends, the Nigerian legislature is unlikely to institutionalise along universal convention pattern. The greatest challenge therefore is the sharing and rotation of political offices, which is of course critical to the integration of the Nigerian state. Thus, the study contends that legislative institutionalisation could be achieved in Nigeria if corruption is curbed, political parties are strengthened and the extent to which legislative autonomy is guaranteed. The study concludes by identifying areas for further theoretical and empirical investigation. These include: comparative studies of state legislatures in northern and southern Nigeria and case studies of individual state legislatures in Nigeria. The homogeneity of states may reveal differing trends and challenges.


Name: Meseret /Macy Demissie
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: University of Ottawa
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info: Professor Meseret/Macy Demissie, PhD Sorbonne University (Paris-1) The University of Ottawa, School of Political Studies [email protected] [email protected]
Paper Title:  Global Governance of the Environment and the Role of International Law in Shaping World Politics: What are the Impacts of International Environmental Law on Nation- States’ Sovereignty over their Natural Resources Management?
Abstract:
This comparative analysis focuses on contemporary geopolitics and international security in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Since the early 1960s, there has been a growing demand for environmental protection around the world. There has been some progress in global environmental governance. But, at the same time, there is growing anxiety on the part of international society, both the State and non-state actors, due to the discrepancy of international norms and institutions governing international rivers and its impact on the economic development of nation-states sharing the same rivers basins. Using the cases study of the Nile River, (involving 11 states in North Africa and the Middle East), the Mekong River, and the Mesopotamian Rivers (the Euphrates and the Tigris), this paper seeks to comparatively examine the impact of international law on nation-States’ rights to economic development and their obligations to do ‘no harm’ to the other States national interests in the process, as well as the progress made in terms of global governance, particularly in the sphere of international water law. What are the Impacts of International environmental law on nation-states’ sovereignty over their natural resources management? In other words, what is the impact of international law on the States’ ability in managing their natural resources? Usually, weaker States rely on international law to defend their rights to economic development while hegemonic States use their military and economic might to impose their views. We postulate that power and influence always play a key role in global environmental governance. International law is shaped by great power politics and the balance of power that determines the outcome. And international water law will continue to reflect the reality of world politics on the ground rather than shaping world environmental politics. We will review research findings on the three case studies that are conducted between 1990 to 2020 so as to verify our hypothesis. The selected periods are of special interest due to the major shift that has occurred in global politics and world order since the 1990s. Keywords: Global governance, International Water Law, Power, Security, the Balance of Power, Natural Resources Management, Mekong River, the Nile, Tigris, and the Euphrates


Name: Amy Freedman
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Pace University
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Naomi Eyassu, Pace University (Student) [email protected]
Co-presenter info: Naomi Eyassu, Pace University (student) [email protected]
Paper Title:  China’s Belt and Road Initiatives in Malaysia and Ethiopia
Abstract:
China's 'belt and road initiative' has prompted a great deal of concern both because of its significance for the growth and operationalization of Chinese power far from their own borders, and because of concerns about debt-trap diplomacy. What is less examined are the domestic political dynamics that underpin the desire for Chinese investment in participating countries. Both Malaysia and Ethiopia are multi-ethnic, multi-religious countries and these divisions are deeply embedded in political arrangements. Chinese BRI projects in both countries were agreed upon by political elites who believed their friends and allies would benefit from the projects. When new regimes came to power in both countries in 2018 there was considerable pressure to take tougher positions towards China and to renegotiate, or halt all together some of China's plans for the countries. Despite this popular pressure, it wasn't surprising that both leaders, Mahathir in Malaysia and Abiy in Ethiopia, got a few concessions from China and announced continued partnerships re-framed as victories for the new ruling powers. This paper examines how Chinese investment in both countries is deeply intertwined with their ethnic political economies and it examines why even under new political coalitions and new ruling elites, BRI projects continue. Our work looks at who is benefiting from these projects and how are they co-opted by elites for their own purposes.


Name: Changwook Ju
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Yale University
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Why Do Military Officers Condone Sexual Violence? Toward a General Theory of Commander Tolerance
Abstract:
Why do commanders tolerate sexual violence by subordinate soldiers? Preoccupied with soldiers’ motives, commander tolerance is mostly taken for granted in existing explanations for military sexual violence (MSV). I argue that, to understand MSV that recurs despite its formal prohibition, scholars must specify conditions under which commanders tolerate it. I build on recent departures from existing principal–agent models of MSV to construct a theoretical framework for commander tolerance and derive its implications for a general theory. Its core theoretical proposal is that commander tolerance hinges on micro-level factors that predispose individual commanders to tolerating MSV, meso-level factors that arise from their interactions with their subordinates, peer commanders, and supervisors, and macro-level factors that surround commanders and create disincentives to effective punishment. In practice, commanders often have ample socio-military incentives to tolerate MSV, while the effects of their successful punishment are unlikely to stand out as an achievement and/or only expose existing command failures. This article—despite its focus on MSV—represents the first systematic cut at a general theory of commander tolerance for a prohibited form of violence.


Name: Uchechukwu Ojukwu
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
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Paper Title:  Challenges of Political Leadership in Africa: The Study of Nigeria
Abstract:
The main thrust of this paper is to examines the extent to which poor and inept leadership have over the years, adversely affected the development of Nigeria as a nation. It argues that Nigeria’s failures have come about largely as a result of frequent leadership challenges; lack of ideology, policy reversal and weak institutional patterns. The study adopts descriptive approach and content analysis as its methodological orientation. Africa is a continent of huge contrasts, albeit a paradox that it is the richest in terms of resources yet the poorest in terms of living standards. Several factors have been offered to explain the apparent failure of development in the continent, more than any, the issue of leadership remains central to Africa's development crisis. This paper argues leadership problems as the greatest obstacle to development in the continent, hence, the decline in moral and high level of corruption caused by bad policies, eroded professional standards and ethics and weakened the system of governance. The paper observes that for Nigeria to overcome the crises of leadership in the country, those on whom the burden of leadership will fall in the future must fully comprehend their responsibilities, duties and obligation. The paper opines that in order to solve the nation’s intractable leadership and governance challenges conclusively, the country needs a true and transparent transformational leadership structure which will drive the political and governmental system for effective and efficient political leadership and governance that will ultimately usher in genuine and verifiable development for the overall benefit of the entire citizenry. Keywords: Political Leadership, Development, Good Governance, Africa and Nigeria.


Name: Iraj Rahimpourasl
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Yazd University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:  South Caucasus
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Aseeye Sadat Abdolahzade, Bachelor's of Science student in International Relations, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza Branch
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  South Caucasus: strategic Threats or opportunities facing Iran
Abstract:
The complicated patterns of relations of Trans-regional powers in regional security complex of the South Caucasus, on one hand, and weak state of factors of region geopolitics, on the other hand, leave countries of the region in a state of insecurity, As a result, either behavior of these countries is even more aggressive in the international arena, or they seek an alliance with regional or trans-regional powers, The presence of trans-regional powers is also associated with contradiction and spread of threats, therefore, in case of strike with wonder and failure to act in a timely manner, serious consequences will await the national interests and national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Hence, the patterns of relations between the trans-regional powers and the strategic threats or opportunities facing Iran in the South Caucasus have been studied by using Barry Buzan’s Regional Security Complex Theory. Findings of study show that; A), The countries of the South Caucasus seek to establish military alliances with trans-regional powers to strengthen their military power, which conflict inherently with Iran's national security and national interests in the region. C) Turning the nature of opportunities into threats, to prevent the restoration of Iran's regional and international position.


Name: Krishnan Raman
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: None [ Retired ]
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
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Paper Title: Some Political Issues Relating to Place and Movement
Abstract:
This paper discusses political issues relating to an Individual’s Right to a Place and a Right to Free-Movement. Such issues should be addressed at a human level, and not within existing formal structures and rules. a. The Right to a Place: What decides the right to belong to a community, or to dwell in a land ? Who decides , and lays down the rules ?b. The Right to Move, to Migrate, in order to make possible building a new life. Can Immigration to another land be considered a right ?A Possible Rationale – based on Fairness :Resources worldwide are not available equitably. What can justify that people in one land enjoy abundant resources, while people in another barely subsist ? Is it just that they got there first ? Did that also give them the right to prevent others from coming in ?The apparent dominant world-view -- the people who came first had full ownership rights, and the right to pass them on to descendants.– But don’t people in need have a moral right to a place to live in ? For a land with large resources – should it not have a duty to accommodate newcomers in need ? Such as People with Inadequate living conditions in their own land, or Refugees. How do we set up a framework.balancing the requirements of Fairness and Resource Availability ?---Different underlying world-views : a. An Isolationist ‘Island’ view – each nation is like an independent island and fends for itself.b. A broad inclusive view -- that all are interconnected and interdependent.Globalization -- To some it meant that the world was one’s domain for making profit. To others it meant a genuine move towards extended interaction and exchange for the benefit of all.Transnational Communities: A community need not be defined by a common spatial location. They may be “Imagined Communities”. Historical examples : Sharing the “White Man’s Burden” ; OR Belonging to the same faith, e.g. Christianity or Islam.The Diasporas in today’s world can provide a strong community force.The Internet and Social Media for creating Virtual Communities in Cyberspace: These can create large communities, and also provide a strong political force.The Need for New World-Views and ParadigmsHow can we make the equitable sharing of Resources, including Land, a Norm in our Thinking ? How can the resource-rich “Have” communities and Nations be persuaded to share resources with “Have-Not” communities and nations ? And the historically dominant role of Power and Military & Economic Might -- can they be countered and softened ? New paradigms need to be generated which will help move the world toward such a transformation. Perhaps a combination of a Moral Approach – a new meta-level Human Ethic ; together with the unifying forces of multiple Diasporas; and wide-ranging pervasive Virtual Communities made possible by the Internet and Social Media , can help us chart a road toward a more inclusive, interconnected, world society, based on Fairness and equitable sharing.


Name: Diogo Santos
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Federal University of Maranhão-Brazil
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: Contemporary Studies on Brazilian Law and Politics 
Panel Description: This panel presents a set of views on different aspects of contemporary Brazil. The most populated country and largest economy of Latin America boasts a vibrant and complex society, but also faces daring challenges in some of the areas covered by this panel: government branch relations, corporate compliance, corruption fighting, environmental and urban design.
Co-author info: 1-José Humberto Gomes OLIVEIRA Full professor Federal University of Maranhão 2-Lucas Diego Fabiano FERREIRA Practitioner Bachelor of Laws (LLB) Federal University of Maranhão
Co-presenter info: 1-José Humberto Gomes OLIVEIRA Full professor Federal University of Maranhão 2-Lucas Diego Fabiano FERREIRA Practitioner Bachelor of Laws (LLB) Federal University of Maranhão
Paper Title:  Adoption of children of long-term convicted and imprisioned parentsin Brazil: Children's rights and interests, regulation and best practices.
Abstract:
This casework research intends to investigate the perils and damages to child development within the prison environment. When parents, or legal guardians, are subject to long-term convictions and imprisonment, it may be in the best interest of children (especially infants) to be directed to immediate adoption in order to avoid their exposure to indignant living conditions at Brazilian prisons. In order to achieve the proposed objective, this research describes the living conditions of the prison system in Brazil and the process of imprisonment, focusing on the physical and psychological conditions to which convicted individuals are exposed. In sequence, we discuss the Human Rights of parents, adopters, and adoptees, in the Global, Pan-American and Brazilian legal scopes, especially the treatment given by the 1988 Brazilian Constitution and the Brazilian Statute of the Child and Adolescent. Finally, we discuss the Brazilian State's responsibility in promoting conditions for the children to develop with dignity, in a protected and nurturing environment, the promotion and protection of parents' civil rights, and the adoption as a means to avoid the imprisonment of children and adolescents who have not been convicted.


Name: Yunus Sozen
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Le Moyne college
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: PT 5
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Eylem Dogan, MEF University, Istanbul. [email protected]
Co-presenter info: Eylem Dogan, MEF University, Istanbul. [email protected]
Paper Title:  Populism, Resentment, and Ressentiment
Abstract:
In this paper, we focus on the relationship of two polemical concepts, resentment and populism, as well their connections with democracy and authoritarianism. To inquire upon this relationship, we first overview the populism literature and the uses of the concept of resentment in that literature, covering the debates on populism’s definition, origins, and relationship with democracy and authoritarianism. We observe that, in the literature on populism, resentment is mainly utilized to describe the negative emotion that leads to the rise of the so-called ‘noxious’ political phenomenon of populism, while there is a lacuna in the study of the relationship between populism-in-power and resentment. We then make two arguments concerning the interrelations of these two concepts, utilizing the Argentinean and Turkish cases of populism-in-power as illustrations. First, we argue that populism defined as a socio-cultural phenomenon, relates better with the concept of resentment and its theoretical background than other political strategic or ideological definitions of the concept. Our second argument connects resentment with populism-in-power in a modern democratic institutional framework. Building on Tocqueville’s insight that in modern democracies, the combination of political equality with persistent inequalities of social and economic power provide a fertile ground for envy-resentment, we argue that populism-in-power exacerbates already existing resentment-generating conditions of democracy. This occurs because of the tendency for populists-in-power to hyperpoliticize socio-cultural differences, their promise of redemption in this world through politics without delivering equality of power, and their rhetoric of victimhood while in power. Finally, utilizing Ure’s conceptual framework that distinguishes among different forms of resentment, we argue that populism-in-power (especially its right-wing forms) is the vehicle that potentially transforms (or degenerates) ‘socio-political resentment’ to ‘ontological ressentiment’.


Name: Egbe Tandu
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: College Of Education, Akampka
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Tandu , Mary Anyie (M.Ed) Department of Social Studies, Cross River State College of Education, Akamkpa. Nigeria. Abeki, Sunny Okoro.(Ph.D). Deputy Rector , Institute of Tourism and Hospitality. Yenagoa, Beyelsa State..
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Underdeveloment And Dependency
Abstract:
Abstract Underdevelopment and dependency are two words that are inter-related, underdevelopment gives rise to dependency. We all know that these concepts are prevalent in Nigeria as a developing country. It is certain that Nigeria is an independent country, but it does not possessed the trappings of an independent country since the super structures that formed the society and state are controlled from outside the shores of Nigeria. Literally, Nigeria is independent, but in practical terms Nigeria is dependent on foreign influences of our colonial masters who tele-guide every thing Nigeria does politically, economically, socially and culturally. Politically, Nigeria adopted British style of governance and currently American style. Economically, Nigeria adopted capitalism which is controlled by foreigners and has contributed in crippling Nigerian economy, socially and culturally, Nigerians copy foreign ways and values and our own ways and values are pushed to the background and suffer inferiority complex to the foreign ways and values. Nigeria falls back to the western Nations for loans and grants which have made us debtor and dependent nation to the west. One can go on and on without end. This paper therefore, attempt to look at the case of Nigeria as it relates to the concepts of underdevelopment and dependency. The paper adopted the Historical/ Descriptive and Prescriptive approaches in the discussion. The layout is as follows: Introduction, Synopses, X-ray the problems thrown up by underdevelopment and dependency in Nigeria and finally, the prognoses. KEY WORDS: Underdevelopment, Dependency, Nation, Synopses,


Name: Alice Timken
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: New York University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:  Comparative Analyses: Nationalism in Effect
Panel Description: This panel looks at civic and ethnic nationalist programs in strategy, means, and outcome ("effect") through comparative analysis, with emphasis on nationalism as a multi-level, rather than rhetorical, phenomenon.
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info: Rahul Thayil; [email protected] (separate paper, on panel)
Paper Title: Networks, Access and Competition: Immigrant Social Capital and Refugee Integration
Abstract:
What factors facilitate successful refugee integration? Might co-nationals, meaning individuals from the same country, support the integration process? It appears refugees are asking the same questions. Almost one fifth of refugees in the US opt for in-country secondary migration, often correlating with two factors: a destination’s relatively low unemployment rate and its existing co-national network. Combined, these pull factors can be understood to indicate sources of social capital to migrating refugees, who seek larger and higher quality co-national networks to provide greater access to resources. While extant quantitative studies hold that co-national social capital has a positive effect on immigrant economic integration, it is less clear how it affects non-economic integration types, which are also crucial to substantive community membership. Conducted within a social capital theory framework, this large-N comparative analysis utilizes a quasi-natural experiment to examine the effect of a state’s share of co-nationals and employment rate on three types of refugee integration: economic, linguistic and navigational. My results suggest that co-national social capital is influential in immigrant integration and that the variables that refugees often prioritize during secondary migration – low unemployment rate and existing co-national network – may effectively encourage multiple types of immigrant integration. This is the first large-N quantitative study to emphasize the relationship between co-national networks and non-economic immigrant integration outcomes. Additionally, it contributes to the literature on immigrant integration by adopting a social capital theory framework and has immediate implications for US refugee policy.


Name: Godwin Unanka
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Imo State University, Owerri - Nigeria
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Juliet A. Ndoh Dept. of Political Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. Email: [email protected] And Paschal Igboeche-Onyenweigwe, PhD Dept. of Political Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. Email: [email protected]
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  Bottom-Up Participatory Governance and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Extrapolating the Indissolubility of Village Governments in New York State
Abstract:
ABSTRACT In the midst of claims to democracy and participatory governance in developed and developing countries of the world, this paper examines the link between participatory governance and sustainable development (1) to determine the type of participatory governance preferred and perceived to be the appropriate form of true democracy for achievement of sustainable development in two cross-ethnic states of Imo and Akwa-Ibom, Nigeria, and (2) by extrapolation, to explain the indissolubility of village governments in the state of New York, USA. In pursuit of these objectives, the study assumes that while the people (citizens) yearn for bottom-up (community-grown) participatory governance in developing countries, village-community governments, when established in developing and relatively developed democracies, are indissoluble. Accordingly, if bottom-up (community-based) participatory governance is a preferred true democratic strategy for achievement of sustainable development in a developing state/country, it will explain resistance to the dissolution of village-community government in a developing or developed democracy. Using a descriptive-survey-correlational design and a randomly selected sample of 904 indigenes/residents of two cross-ethnic states of Nigeria, the study found that in Imo and Akwa Ibom States of Nigeria, the people perceive and prefer the Bottom-Up Community-Grown Participatory Governance as a form of True Participatory Democracy at the Local Government Level of governance for the achievement of Sustainable Development. The push for the dissolution and consolidation of village and town governments in New York State makes fiscal sense, but from a noneconomic perspective of community-survival, albeit, perspective of achievement of good governance and participatory true democracy, it becomes even more explainable why the citizens are likely to reject the dissolution of village governments. Accordingly, the paper recommends for Nigeria: (1) That the Bottom-Up Community-Grown Participatory Governance (albeit, village-community form of governments) should be established in states yearning for such, to replace the current dysfunctional local government system and accordingly facilitate the achievement of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (2016-2030) in Nigeria, and (2) To sustain grass root participatory democracy in New York State, village governments should be preserved and even where the citizens vote for dissolution for fiscal considerations, the village government could be consolidated in the town government while preserving the village-community identity therein to retain its indissoluble role in bottom-up community-grown participatory governance.



History and Politics

Name: Teresa Almeida e Silva
Section: History and Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Institute of Social and Political Sciences - Univesidade de Lisboa (Portugal)
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
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Paper Title:  Saudi Arabia: At the Crossroads between East and West
Abstract:
The Saudi ideology - Wahhabism - has always brought an ambiguity to Saudi society. However, this ideology has never forbidden this kingdom to be the West's great ally, especially that of the US. In fact, both Saudis and Americans were interested in maintaining the stability of the Gulf region by jointly containing the advance of the Eastern communism as well as the radical nationalists in the Middle East. The main premise of this relationship was (and still is) the fact that Saudi Arabia could expand its oil trade abroad to satisfy the needs of the capitalist world, and could sell that oil at very profitable prices in exchange for American military and economic assistance and protection. Nevertheless, the divergence between both countries on various issues related to regional affairs has led to a certain distance between them. Taking advantage of this disengagement, China seems to see Saudi Arabia as the ideal strategic partner to take over from the US in the oil market. This paper seeks to analyze the Saudi dilemma of choosing between the two powers - US and China - as a partner in the international oil market.


Name: Michael Boston
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: The College at Brockport
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:  Paper
Panel Description: I would like to present a paper on African Americans and Native Americans and the U. S. Constitution. I will go back to the formation of the U. S. Constitution to close to the present and analyze who it has been applied toward African Americans and Native Americans.
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title:  George K. Arthur and Arthur O. Eve
Abstract:
I would like to present a paper or Powerpoint presentation on George K. Arthur and Arthur O. Eve. These were two Buffalo, New York African American politicians who worked for the advancement of the Buffalo community generally and the African American community specifically. Both politicians organized on the grassroots level and became respected influential politicians. Eve ran and obtained a position in state government. Both individuals ran for the Buffalo mayor's office and lost. Nevertheless, they were successful politicians and critical parts of Buffalo's political history. Eve created programs to help low-economic students obtain college and university educations, regardless of race and was an influential part of the outside mediating teams in the Attica uprising and the Love Canal Crisis. Both men participated in the Buffalo school desegregation efforts. A book can be written on each of these individuals. Moreover, their historical activities serve as case studies in how to make local and state politics work for middle class, poor, and marginalized citizens.


Name: Sam Goodson
Section: History and Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: CUNY Graduate Center
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Christopher Putney, [email protected]
Co-presenter info: Christopher Putney, [email protected]
Paper Title: The People’s Party in American Political Development: Rethinking Populism and Democracy in the American South
Abstract:
Perhaps no concept has become more ubiquitous among scholars of contemporary “democratic backsliding” and “norm-erosion” than populism. Populist movements, with their firm distinctions between a political “us” and “other”––coupled with a native disdain for formal institutions and elites––are thought to threaten the very fabric of pluralistic liberal democracy. There is no question that contemporary liberal democracies face threats more dire today than in at least a generation; and that some leaders routinely described with the populist epithet have played key roles in orchestrating such threats. But is it simply the case that populism remains an engine of this assault on democratic norms? Against that prevailing ahistorical view, this study makes the case that major populist movements in the United States have actually stood as the greatest harbingers and defenders of democracy. By rethinking the theoretical and political contributions of the People’s Party of the 1890s––as well as its signal political and theoretical antecedents––we trace the contours of a better framework for understanding populism writ large. Revisiting populist activity across the nineteenth-century American South, new questions emerge from this framework; not just about the substantive meaning of populism, but about how and why the “populist moment” subsumed several pre-existing political logics, and––in the crucible of political strife––conjoined them into new forms of political awareness, dissent, and organization. Moreover, we show how populists could contend with, but ultimately go beyond, traditional forms of contestation over the ends and means of federal power in the United States to the core dilemmas of liberal modernity itself. Finally, by critiquing and revising competing accounts of this period with an eye towards contemporary threats to democracy, we show that––rather than a primary threat to democractic governance––populism has been a primary vehicle for democratic renewal in American history.


Name: Philip Grant
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Pace University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
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Paper Title: Congressional Committee Chairmen from New York, 2001-2020 
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper will be to provide a composite profile of congressional committee chairmen from the State of New York between 2001 and 2020. Theses chairmen and their respective committees were: Representatives Benjamin A. Gilman(Foreign Affairs), Peter T. King (Homeland Security), Charles Rangel (Ways and Means), Louise Slaughter(Rules), Jerrold Nadler (Judiciary), Eliot L. Engel (Foreign Affairs), Carolyn B. Maloney (Oversight and Government Reform), and Nita M. Lowey (Appropriations). The eight chairmen, accumulating considerable seniority over several decades, served an aggregate total of two hundred fifty-two years on Capitol Hill.


Name: harvey strum
Section: History and Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Russell Sage College
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: none
Co-presenter info: None
Paper Title:  Foreign Policy's Impact on Local and State Politics in New York, 1807-1815
Abstract:
Between 1807-1815 foreign policy and domestic national issues were superimposed upon existing political divisions in New York. They reinforced certain divisions---Federalists vs Republicans and altered others---factional divisions within the Republican Party. Contrasting trends emerged. Voting behavior between 1807-15 revealed the importance of localism in state politics. Federalist gains in the Assembly elections of 1808-09, 1812-13, and 1815, the State Senatorial elections of 1809, gubernatorial election of 1813, and congressional election elections of 1808 and 1812 represented a repudiation of the foreign policies of Jefferson and Madison---of the embargo and War of 1812, and not the Republican Party. Especially, between 1808-1815 foreign policy and its impact on the lives of New Yorkers emerged as the major issues in town, city, state legislative, congressional, and gubernatorial elections. After 1800 a majority of New York's voters identified with the Republican Party but the foreign policies of Jefferson and Madison allowed for the political resurrection of the Federalist Party at the local and state level. New York entered the War of 1812 politically divided, as suggest by De Witt Clinton's presidential bid, and the results of the 1815 state elections confirmed the divisiveness of the war as many New Yorkers saw the war as a war of party, not country.



International Relations and American Foreign Policy

Name: Isil Akbulut-Gok
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Sacred Heart University
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: Multiparty Mediation Effectiveness in Civil Wars
Abstract:
Notwithstanding the increasing collaboration between intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) in peace operations, academic research has thus far neglected the pressing question of what motivates IGOs to cooperate. In this study, applying a multi-theoretical multi-level (MTML) framework (Monge and Contractor 2003), I put forward theory-driven hypotheses to explain the motives for IGOs to collaborate in conducting peace operations despite the risks, such as losing autonomy and organizational identity, associated with such partnerships. A temporal exponential random graph model is estimated with a newly collected relational data of inter-organizational collaboration among IGOs in peace operations deployed in internal armed conflicts from 1990 to 2013. The findings confirm the theories of resource dependence and exchange by showing that IGOs are more likely to team up with the organizations that could provide required capabilities and resources. More specifically, organizations would forge partnerships on the basis of their need for military capabilities, human and financial resources.


Name: Donel Bowen
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Le Moyne College
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Commercial Surrogacy & Baby Farming: An International Whirl of Disadvantages and the Need for Global Regulation 
Abstract:
This paper is on the transnational politics of commercial surrogacy. Surrogacy is a method of assisted reproduction where intended parents work with a surrogate who will carry and care for their baby(ies) until birth. Intended parents use surrogacy to start or grow their families when they can't do so on their own. Additionally, there are various types of surrogacy, such as gestational and traditional. However, whether an intended parent chooses gestational or traditional, it is possible by two forms of payment: altruistic or commercial. This paper examines the transnational market structure of commercial surrogacy, while posing two questions: How many human rights issues are connected to surrogacy, and with the expansion of international human rights norms and treaties in the last decade, why isn’t surrogacy included since human beings are involved? The countries of research interest are the United States of America, India, Ukraine, and Malaysia. In the United States, specifically California, it costs approximately $50, 000 to $80,000 for the entire surrogacy process. This lucrative business has not been internationally protected/ regulated or listed as a potential human rights issue. Human rights issues in terms of extortion and/or human trafficking, in which the sale of babies to desperate families and “underground” begging and sex syndicates occur. To further this point, states play a crucial role in the implementation of policies to regulate the market, yet the United States is the only country with concise regulations that protect parties involved. To accomplish this task, this paper reviews the literatures on commercial surrogacy, human trafficking, and human rights with the help of various data from NGOs and news outlets. Finally, this paper contends that since this industry is or can be transnational, there should be an international treaty that regulates the profitable surrogacy market.


Name: Meseret /Macy Demissie
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: University of Ottawa
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-presenter info: Professor Meseret/Macy Demissie, PhD Sorbonne University (Paris-1) The University of Ottawa, School of Political Studies [email protected] [email protected]
Paper Title:  Global Governance of the Environment and the Role of International Law in Shaping World Politics: What are the Impacts of International Environmental Law on Nation- States’ Sovereignty over their Natural Resources Management?
Abstract:
This comparative analysis focuses on contemporary geopolitics and international security in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Since the early 1960s, there has been a growing demand for environmental protection around the world. There has been some progress in global environmental governance. But, at the same time, there is growing anxiety on the part of international society, both the State and non-state actors, due to the discrepancy of international norms and institutions governing international rivers and its impact on the economic development of nation-states sharing the same rivers basins. Using the cases study of the Nile River, (involving 11 states in North Africa and the Middle East), the Mekong River, and the Mesopotamian Rivers (the Euphrates and the Tigris), this paper seeks to comparatively examine the impact of international law on nation-States’ rights to economic development and their obligations to do ‘no harm’ to the other States national interests in the process, as well as the progress made in terms of global governance, particularly in the sphere of international water law. What are the Impacts of International environmental law on nation-states’ sovereignty over their natural resources management? In other words, what is the impact of international law on the States’ ability in managing their natural resources? Usually, weaker States rely on international law to defend their rights to economic development while hegemonic States use their military and economic might to impose their views. We postulate that power and influence always play a key role in global environmental governance. International law is shaped by great power politics and the balance of power that determines the outcome. And international water law will continue to reflect the reality of world politics on the ground rather than shaping world environmental politics. We will review research findings on the three case studies that are conducted between 1990 to 2020 so as to verify our hypothesis. The selected periods are of special interest due to the major shift that has occurred in global politics and world order since the 1990s. Keywords: Global governance, International Water Law, Power, Security, the Balance of Power, Natural Resources Management, Mekong River, the Nile, Tigris, and the Euphrates


Name: Joseph Garske
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Administrator
Institution: The Global Conversation
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
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Paper Title:  DECLINING STATE AND ASCENDING CORPORATION IN THE GLOBAL RULE OF LAW
Abstract:
There are many ways to understand the methods of global governance being constructed in the twenty-first century. Yet, no aspect of that project is more fundamental than the legal basis on which global order will be established. Although much of this legal development occurs beyond public view, or even beyond public awareness, there are ways in which those developments can be brought to examination. One approach is to compare the declining role of the state with the ascending role of the corporation, two primary legal structures in the ordering of a global future. Changing patterns of governance are arising from a convergence of the two great Western legal traditions, Civilian and Anglophone. In an era marked by disruptive technological innovation and linguistic Anglicization, the principled methods of the Civilian are being subsumed by the pragmatic methods of the Anglophone. Comparing the Civilian origins of the modern nation-state with the Anglophone origins of the modern multi-national corporation provides a way of understanding a post-modern Rule of Law that is being constructed over all peoples and regions of the earth.


Name: Uchechukwu Ojukwu
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Challenges of Political Leadership in Africa: The Study of Nigeria
Abstract:
The main thrust of this paper is to examines the extent to which poor and inept leadership have over the years, adversely affected the development of Nigeria as a nation. It argues that Nigeria’s failures have come about largely as a result of frequent leadership challenges; lack of ideology, policy reversal and weak institutional patterns. The study adopts descriptive approach and content analysis as its methodological orientation. Africa is a continent of huge contrasts, albeit a paradox that it is the richest in terms of resources yet the poorest in terms of living standards. Several factors have been offered to explain the apparent failure of development in the continent, more than any, the issue of leadership remains central to Africa's development crisis. This paper argues leadership problems as the greatest obstacle to development in the continent, hence, the decline in moral and high level of corruption caused by bad policies, eroded professional standards and ethics and weakened the system of governance. The paper observes that for Nigeria to overcome the crises of leadership in the country, those on whom the burden of leadership will fall in the future must fully comprehend their responsibilities, duties and obligation. The paper opines that in order to solve the nation’s intractable leadership and governance challenges conclusively, the country needs a true and transparent transformational leadership structure which will drive the political and governmental system for effective and efficient political leadership and governance that will ultimately usher in genuine and verifiable development for the overall benefit of the entire citizenry. Keywords: Political Leadership, Development, Good Governance, Africa and Nigeria.


Name: Keith Preble
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: University at Albany, SUNY
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Charmaine Willis, [email protected]
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Paper Title:  Trading with Pariahs: International Trade and North Korean Sanctions
Abstract:
For decades, the international community has targeted North Korea with economic sanctions, seeking not only to keep the nuclear bomb out of North Korean hands but also to potentially cause regime change and weaken the military. However, many in the academic and policy communities have labeled the North Korean sanctions regime a failure. Why has North Korea been able to evade the pressure of international sanctions more effectively than other targets, such as Iran and Myanmar? Recent scholarship argues that the answer is largely that North Korean elites are insulated from domestic pressures brought on by economic sanctions. We argue that another part of the puzzle involves third-party sanctions-busting from countries beyond North Korea’s two major trading partners, China and South Korea. Furthermore, the failure of North Korean sanctions is the result of North Korea’s network of trading partners. In this study, we explore trade and sanctions-busting trends using UN Comtrade sectoral data from 1990 to the present to show how this network has allowed North Korea to evade the pain of economic sanctions. The theory we develop here may also explain the failure of other economic sanctions programs to bring about desired policy change.


Name: Ethan Rotondi
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Le Moyne College
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Presidential Primacy in United States Foreign Policy: America’s Yemen Policy
Abstract:
Presidential Primacy in United States Foreign Policy: America’s Yemen Policy This paper studies the presidential primacy that exists in U.S. foreign policy with a focus on U.S. foreign policy in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. In the aftermath of World War II, the Office of the United States President has become increasingly strong, while Congress has only become weaker. For decades, Congressional oversight into U.S. foreign policy has been ceded to the Office of the President, including the ability to deploy U.S. military forces abroad. To put this development into perspective, the last time Congress declared war was World War II, however despite that, U.S. military forces have been deployed, in some capacity, nearly one hundred times since 1945. While Congress has attempted to check the Executive Branch through passing laws such as the War Powers Act of 1973, the U.S. has continued to take part in numerous military engagements abroad without the full support of Congress. No region in the world has seen more of these deployments, for longer periods of time than the Middle East. United States military forces have been involved in the Middle East since the 1980’s when U.S. marines were sent to Lebanon to help stabilize the region and protect the nation from Syrian influence. Since then, the U.S. has been directly involved in numerous conflicts in the region, most notably in Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, Syria, and Yemen, all while trying to maintain fragile alliances with regional neighboring powers, Iran, Israel, and Saudi Arabia. While not the most notable conflict, one area of policy that has become an area of intense scrutiny in recent years is the United States foreign policy towards Yemen and alliance with Saudi Arabia. Recently Congress passed a joint resolution (S.J. Res. 7) to end U.S. involvement in Yemen in an effort to exercise more authority over U.S. foreign policy decisions, as should be their duty. Unfortunately for Congress and ultimately many others, President Trump vetoed the joint resolution and Congress lacked a two-thirds majority to override the presidential veto. This paper analyzes the history of presidential primacy in United States foreign policy, focusing on relations with Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Despite attempts from Congress to take initiative in the realm of foreign policy decisions, the Office of the President often overrules the wishes of Congress and acts accordingly to his own agenda. This paper will focus more specifically on the history of Senate Joint Resolution 7 and culminating with then President Trump’s veto of the joint resolution, despite Congress initially voting to pass the joint resolution. The paper will also scrutinize the former President’s refusal to scale back cooperation with Saudi Arabia, a country proven to have committed numerous atrocities and human rights violations.


Name: Jenna Russo
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: The Graduate Center, CUNY
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  A New Era of Protection? Analyzing Civilian Harm Mitigation in US Military Doctrine and Operations
Abstract:
Over the past twenty years, the protection of civilians has received increasing attention in conflict environments. While there is a growing literature on civilian protection, most research to this point has focused on UN peacekeeping environments, while less has been written about implementation by national governments and military institutions. This paper aims to fill that gap, focusing in particular on US implementation of civilian harm mitigation into military doctrine as well as planning and operations. While the US has begun to increasingly incorporate civilian harm mitigation into military doctrine, implementation has been uneven and largely ad hoc. The paper looks at evidence of implementation in the Afghanistan, Syrian and Iraqi contexts, and also considers barriers and enablers for implementation.


Name: Robert Whelan
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: SUNY Binghamton
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: PT 1
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Paper Title:  The Nature of 'Greedy' Motives: Exploring the Role of ‘Sacred Values’ in International Relations Theory.
Abstract:
While research in social psychology by Philip Tetlock and Jeremy Ginges suggests that ‘sacred values’ (SV) play a salient role in fomenting political conflict, little attempt has been made to utilize SV as an explanatory variable in international relations (IR) theory. Broadly construed, values are ‘sacralized’ if a community treats them as possessing a transcendental significance that precludes comparison or exchange. Importantly, practices which fail to promote SVs by encouraging trade-offs with ‘secular’ values (those without an immeasurable worth) are condemned as taboo. In responding to taboo exchanges, those with SV behave as ‘devoted’ rather than rational political actors, adopting a cost-insensitive logic that favors violence over compromise. Here, I argue that incorporating SV into the analysis of state behavior will help to strengthen the explanatory and predictive power of IR theories. To assess the import of these findings, I draw on Charles Glaser’s ‘contingent’ defensive realism in which ‘greedy’ (non-security) expansionist motives constitute an important independent variable. Linking the psychological literature to Glaser’s work substantiates the causal role afforded to motive without downplaying the effects of structural factors, as Andrew Kydd’s ‘motivational’ realism seems to (as do many second image accounts). Yet, the psychological literature also suggests important modifications to Glaser’s account. For instance, Glaser suggests that Greedy States could be restrained by material conditions that render competition inefficient. Thus, rational security seekers should constrain Greedy States by appeasing them with material incentives or by enhancing their own military capabilities. However, if greedy motives are in part constituted by SV then such strategies are unlikely to succeed. Rather, Glaser’s prescriptions for rational security seekers may exacerbate conflict as the behavior of devoted actors will not be directly proportional to the distribution of material capabilities or the costs of war. Ultimately, the nature of SV suggests that certain strategies prescribed for security seekers may increase the likelihood of protracted conflict.


Name: Shaoyu Yuan
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Rutgers University
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Terrorism in Xin Jiang & The Chinese Government’s Countermeasures
Abstract:
Terrorism is a pressing social issue affecting the growth and development of many nations across the world. Inhuman activities associated with terrorism have led to the destruction of properties, injuries, and loss of lives of many innocent people. Criminal groups that aim at destroying the reputation of a particular government or announce their superiority further these activities. For instance, the Al-Qaeda, one of the common terrorist groups in the world has destroyed properties and killed people in different nations to announce their superiority. Thus, various administrations such as the United States federal and the Chinese government have implemented various measures to counter and reduce terrorism incidences in their boundaries. This paper provides an exclusive research on terrorism in Xinjiang and measures that the Chinese government took to curb the inhuman acts in its boundaries.



Political Theory

Name: Hisseine Faradj
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Bronx Community College CUNY
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  The Resilience of Political Islam in the face of Post-Islamism
Abstract:
The early success of Political Islam or Islamist political parties during the “Arab Spring” signaled a shift in the nature of government and politics in the region ushering the arrival of what some dubbed as the “Arab Winter.” Accordingly, the ideologization of the religion of Islam was seen as shift away from the revolutionary goals and demands of establishing secular democracies that respect human right and the rule of law to theocracies resembling the regime governing the Islamic Republic of Iran. The early success of Islamist political parties was reversed and pummeled by an amalgamation of counter revolutionary forces that consists of the regional absolutist monarchies and aspiring military dictators prompting the academic literature and debates that coined the term Post-Islamism. This paper argues that this analysis is inaccurate and misleading as currents of Political Islam or Islamism are thriving at the moment as the winners of the repression campaign against other Islamist groups. Thus, speaking about Political Islam or Islamist political parties as a unified group with a unified fate is faulty and not helpful in understanding the political phenomenon. This assessment is possible by examining the notion of divine sovereignty that is at the core of the discourse of the founding ideologues of these political movements. This paper examines the contending concepts of divine sovereignty while connecting these notions of sovereignty to the winners and losers in the contemporary political landscape of the Middle Eastern and North African.


Name: Claudia Favarato
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: University of Lisbon
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: PT 5
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Paper Title:  Consenso di irmandade: Reading Bissau-Guinean Political Thought through Comparative Political Theory
Abstract:
Broadly speaking, the sub-Saharan regions receive little attention from political theory studies. Moreover, political theory in the continent is strictly intertwined with political philosophy or political anthropology. In this sense, comparative political theory (CPT) provides the theoretical frame to integrate the canons of the discipline with political thoughts and theories from marginalised areas. Although it is arguable that the efforts of CPT in Africa have, thus far, accorded less attention to indigenous, ordinary political thought than to “big thinkers”, the discipline offers a comprehensive frame for the understanding of political power. This paper aims to expose endogenous political thought of Guinea-Bissau through the reading lenses of CPT. The main benefit of this approach is that it enables the researcher to understand local conceptions of power and political relations beyond the state. The analysis uses a deductive-inductive approach. The data from fieldwork (2016; 2019; 2020) are gathered from individuals of different ethnical groups, thus transcending the religious and ethnical differentiation. The study focused primarily on discerning the principles underpinning power in the indigenous polity, where a communitarian understanding of the individual prevails. The reliance on the past, the land (tchon) and the kinship (djorson) determine the conceptualization of the functioning of the polity, ultimately governed by rules of participatory politics and “brotherhood consensus” (consenso di irmandade, in local creole). However, the tenets underlying indigenous political thought adapted and changed in the bi-directional process of Africanisation of power, due to the overarching presence of the state. The final aim of this paper is to shed some light on the reciprocal cooccurrence between the endogenous polity and the state (semi-presidential liberal democracy) on constituting Bissau-Guinean political thought today.


Name: Michael Gamkrelidze
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: Independent researcher
Professional Status:
Institution: Independent researcher
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: PT 4
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Paper Title:  To science about social boundaries or social ammoriology
Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This paper is a continuation of “Democracy as a State of Social Boundaries”, presented at last year's NYSPSA 73-rd Annual Congress. The idea then was to consider social systems of various sizes and types, from a family of two members to the world community, as dynamic steady state systems, seeing the advantage of this approach in the possibility of describing social systems in non-anthropomorphic terms, free of value judgment and common to physical and biological systems. We proceeded from the fact that the state (condition, order) of the system is a mathematical concept, as well as the boundary, also common to physical and biological systems. We hope that it will gradually relieve us of the need to operate with such controversial and ambiguous terms as capitalism, socialism, democracy, liberalism, and many others. In this article an attempt has been made to outline the taxonomy of social boundaries, their nature, their interdependence, their significance, their variability, their impact on the stability of social systems, on their development, survival in competition, etc. Keywords are: sovereignty, discrete and continuous states of the social system, social boundary


Name: Geoffrey Kurtz
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: BMCC-CUNY
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Maybe Even Souls: Michael Walzer on the Moral Basis of Socialism
Abstract:
Michael Walzer is unmistakably a member of the ethical socialist tradition, the tradition of non-Marxist democratic leftists like R.H. Tawney, Ignazio Silone, and Irving Howe. Yet he has refrained from offering a thick account of what Howe called “the moral basis of socialism.” In Spheres of Justice, for example, after asking “by virtue of what characteristic” human persons deserve to be equal to one another, he answers: “I don’t know.” Similarly, in his seminal essay “The Communitarian Critique of Liberalism,” he argues that political theorists need not address “the constitution of the self” because their proper concern is limited to “the connection of (already) constituted selves.” Almost always, Walzer rules out of consideration questions about the underpinnings of his political commitments. Walzer’s reluctance to take up such questions is not incidental to his political thought. He argues that his insistence on thinking “inside the cave” is what makes his thought political in character, that fully articulated answers to fundamental questions entail a “singularity” incompatible with the pluralism necessary to an egalitarian and democratic politics. Yet it seems to me that Walzer suggests more things indirectly than he affirms directly about the moral or anthropological—or even, in a sense, theological—basis of his politics (as when he writes, in Spheres of Justice, that “souls” are “maybe even” among the things human persons have in common. Moreover, he gives his readers reason to think that his political aversion to fundamental questions was no more than a prudent response to the political situation of the American left in the second half of the twentieth century. In this paper, I will try to achieve two things. First, looking at a range of Walzer’s works (especially at Spheres of Justice, his late-1980s writings on social criticism, his two books on the Bible, and his most directly socialist essays in Dissent), I will piece together Walzer’s indirect or partial answers to questions about the moral underpinnings of his politics, tracing the outlines of the moral premises that he implies or evokes. Second, I will argue that affirming a moral basis for socialism is more compatible with Walzer’s sort of social democratic politics than he recognizes, in part because the political circumstances of the democratic left today are not the same as in the period in which Walzer formulated the main lines of his thinking. I will argue that Walzer has shown, perhaps despite himself, that social democracy can and should be a radical politics, a politics that depends on root-level moral affirmations.


Name: Matthew LaValle
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: SUNY Empire State College
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Social Organization, Social Media, & Social Capital
Abstract:
Traditional Western social organization is characterized by distinct boundaries separating the individual and the organizations which form the wider society. Sharp distinctions provide clarity of purpose, position, and power. However, contemporary society is characterized by the blurring of divisions between the individual and society, the consumer and the citizen, public and private. It is the disruptive nature of these transitions, fueled by policy and accelerated by technology, which is detrimental to social capital. Democratic processes and discourse depend on social cooperation, civic engagement, and social trust; which would appear, on the surface, to be collective activities. While collectivist perspectives tend to view individualism as a threat to such social cooperation, democratic political structures have historically flourished in traditionally individualistic societies and have struggled to take root in collectivist ones. While individualism would appear to be corrosive to social capital, it may be a necessary component of its functionality. Working on the basis of this assumption, this paper hypothesizes that voluntary cooperation actually depends on individuals having the autonomy to decide to work in concert without coercion or social pressure. However, the individualism which sustained political participation in the past becomes a detriment when the distinctions which characterize individualistic societies become obscured. For example, the difference between today’s American political participant and consumer is ill-defined. The individual citizen is driven by values, the individual consumer is driven by value. Forty years of political and policy decisions have erased the differences between those roles on a societal scale, while the proliferation of technology has distorted the distinction on the individual level. When individuals are unable to distinguish between the two roles they are unlikely to see potential political allies and are more likely to see potential economic competitors. The division between the individual and society, particularly in the United States, has been historically sustained by a robust defense of privacy, fueled by a healthy suspicion of intrusions on said privacy. Yet, the rapid digitization of human interaction, facilitated by private organizations whose business models monetize the record of private action in the form of data, has eroded the border which divides the private and public realms. The voluntary relinquishment of privacy in exchange for convenience and the ability to participate in society-at-large has led to the centralization of private and social activities into one location (digital platforms). As such forums become repositories and transmitters of our private thoughts, our places of commerce, our means of social interaction, our sources of information, and our primary means of political participation; the centralization of social and private activities disrupts societal norms while distorting our perception of individual identity, its relationship and role within our society, and the very structure of that society. Social capital is a form of trust. Trust is threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty. This paper seeks to examine the impact of the perceived ambiguity of contemporary social organization on social capital. This paper will utilize the Hofstede model of dimensionalizing culture and the work of cross-cultural psychologists to compare the relationship between individualism and democracy. Furthermore it will examine the transition of private and public activities to digital platforms as well as analyze policy trends which have blurred the distinction between business and government while comparing those trends to declines in social capital as defined by individuals such as Robert Putnam and others. The paper hypothesizes that the increasing ambiguity of American social organization will correlate with declines in social capital.


Name: Osabohien Oduwa
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Le Moyne College
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Your Favorite Store Lives in a Democracy, You Do Not
Abstract:
Outside forces play a significant influence on the U.S. federal government and the policies it enacts. However, there is a debate on who these outside forces actually are. In this paper, I address this question on the identity of these outside actors. Of the many conflicting arguments pertaining to finding the answer to this question, two standout and are the cornerstones of this paper, majoritarian pluralism and biased pluralism. Those who argue for majoritarian pluralism contend that the U.S. federal government is influenced by the will of the general voting populous in the country. Those who argue for biased pluralism argue that the federal government is influenced by the whims of powerful businesses. Through the use of secondary sources (academic journals, articles, excerpts from books, etc.), this paper aims to clarify that those who argue for biased pluralism provide a cogent answer to this question. The evidence for this being the case is compelling. In this paper, I focus on three different aspects of how the U.S. government functions: committee assignments, the iron triangle, and the electoral system. I focus on how committee assignments are plagued by corporate money being flooded into it thanks to committee fees. I write about how the iron triangle keeps our government regulation in a self serving loop as the very people who are responsible for regulating industries go on to work for those industries once they leave public office. I then focus on the U.S. electoral system and how corporations get into the ear of our politicians through PACs and Super PACs. This paper not only provides evidence to support the biased pluralism perspective, but also it addresses counterarguments offered by those who argue for majoritarian pluralism. This paper, then, concludes by disproving and shutting down these counterclaims and supports that it is biased pluralism that pervades the U.S. political arena.


Name: Nader Sadre
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: Hunter College
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: PT 1
Panel Description: Topics in Political Theory
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Paper Title:  Charismatic Pirates: Reading the Odyssey with Weber
Abstract:
My paper considers the role of mobility and liminality in Weber’s typology of authority. I ask, how does the im/mobility of the charismatic actor enhance or diminish her political status? Weber offers many examples of the charismatic figure, one of which is the ‘pirate’. He does not however thoroughly consider the mobility of the pirate as a conditioning factor on his authority. To explore this question further, I use Weber to reread Homer’s Odyssey. The Scherian episode, in which Odysseus relates his adventures to the Phaeacians, offers a rich illustration of a charismatic actor seizing authority from the king. Essential to this process is Odysseus’ mobility, his dual identity as monarch and pirate, as guest and stranger. By drawing out the relationship between authority and mobility, I hope to enrich our understanding of Weber’s account of charisma and complicate our views about the political capacity of the traveler.


Name: Yunus Sozen
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Le Moyne college
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: PT 5
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Eylem Dogan, MEF University, Istanbul. [email protected]
Co-presenter info: Eylem Dogan, MEF University, Istanbul. [email protected]
Paper Title:  Populism, Resentment, and Ressentiment
Abstract:
In this paper, we focus on the relationship of two polemical concepts, resentment and populism, as well their connections with democracy and authoritarianism. To inquire upon this relationship, we first overview the populism literature and the uses of the concept of resentment in that literature, covering the debates on populism’s definition, origins, and relationship with democracy and authoritarianism. We observe that, in the literature on populism, resentment is mainly utilized to describe the negative emotion that leads to the rise of the so-called ‘noxious’ political phenomenon of populism, while there is a lacuna in the study of the relationship between populism-in-power and resentment. We then make two arguments concerning the interrelations of these two concepts, utilizing the Argentinean and Turkish cases of populism-in-power as illustrations. First, we argue that populism defined as a socio-cultural phenomenon, relates better with the concept of resentment and its theoretical background than other political strategic or ideological definitions of the concept. Our second argument connects resentment with populism-in-power in a modern democratic institutional framework. Building on Tocqueville’s insight that in modern democracies, the combination of political equality with persistent inequalities of social and economic power provide a fertile ground for envy-resentment, we argue that populism-in-power exacerbates already existing resentment-generating conditions of democracy. This occurs because of the tendency for populists-in-power to hyperpoliticize socio-cultural differences, their promise of redemption in this world through politics without delivering equality of power, and their rhetoric of victimhood while in power. Finally, utilizing Ure’s conceptual framework that distinguishes among different forms of resentment, we argue that populism-in-power (especially its right-wing forms) is the vehicle that potentially transforms (or degenerates) ‘socio-political resentment’ to ‘ontological ressentiment’.


Name: Joanne Tetlow
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: Marymount University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Executive Orders: Arbitrary Political Power and Locke’s Second Treatise
Abstract:
The President of the United States has too much political power. And it is not constitutional. This excessive executive power has been operating in an unfettered way both in American government and society for far too long, at least since the end of World War II. Now is the time for change. President Donald J. Trump, who has used and abused executive power in a feckless and arbitrary manner, has brought a longstanding problem to the fore. This problem is presidential lawmaking through executive orders. We need a second U.S. Supreme Court decision along the lines of Youngstown Steel Tube Co. v. Sawyer (1952), where an executive order by President Harry Truman to seize private American steel mills was declared unconstitutional and stopped dead in its tracks. It is the U.S. Supreme Court who must take the first step in not only checking executive orders, but placing them on firm constitutional grounds under the separation of powers doctrine. Then, it is up to Congress to respond by delegating more circumscribed powers to the executive within those constitutional boundaries. This is the structural, governmental part of my argument, which will focus on the constitutional jurisprudence of executive orders and the “separation of powers” doctrine. In the second part of the paper, I will argue “why” action is necessary to change the course of executive power through an analysis of John Locke’s Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690). Locke theorizes and places lawmaking power in the legislature, not in the executive. Locke sees correctly that the executive power man gives up by coming out of the state of nature to form a civil government is “the execution of the laws” not the “right to make laws.” Political power is foremost the right to make laws. That lawmaking power is legislative, the body who has the supreme power in a commonwealth, and who directs the force of the community in the execution of such laws. Thus, implementation and execution of the law are not lawmaking powers; they are administrative and operational. Other than Locke’s exception for prerogative, the executive shall not, and must not, engage in lawmaking; otherwise, arbitrary power will violate the right of self-preservation and preservation of the community, the two fundamental natural laws of political society. Also, under Locke, if the legislative is altered, the government can be dissolved. In the American context, this dissolution of government would be ending unilateral presidential lawmaking through executive orders, and returning to the republican form of government intended by the U.S. Constitution. It is entirely clear the Founders did not want a monarchy. Continuing to permit substantive lawmaking by the President of the United States endangers the liberties of the people and its democratic republic. Further, the arbitrary nature of substantive executive orders changing from President to President does not serve the purpose of law, which is to be settled, established, and known based on the consent of the governed, or popular sovereignty.


Name: Aaron Zack
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: John jay College and Baruch College, CUNY
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
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Co-author info: none
Co-presenter info: none
Paper Title:  Byung Chul Han's Theory of the Digital Personality: the Prospects for Political Mobilization in a Digital World
Abstract:
Byung Chul Han is a contemporary German social theorist. His analysis of the digital world's deconstruction and construction of our political identities has received increasing attention, particularly as more of our political and intellectual activity shifts to a digital, virtual format. Standard analyses suggest that the digital world and social media facilitate political action and mass mobilization for political ends. Han, in contrast, asserts that the shift to digital personalities and a digital world has limited the prospects for real political thought, dialogue, and mobilization. This paper will present and analyze Han's insights about the digital world's effects on political debate and mass political mobilization.



Identity Politics

Name: Carolyn Conway
Section: Identity Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: University of Connecticut
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
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Co-author info: Dr. Evelyn Simien - University of Connecticut ([email protected]) Dr. Thomas Hayes - University of Connecticut ([email protected])
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Paper Title:  Multiple Group Identity, Candidate Affect, and Vote Choice in the 2016 American Presidential Election
Abstract:
What is the political significance of identity categories? Can vote choice and candidate affect legitimize ideology-based boundaries? Past research has established that feminists differ from non-feminists in their attitudes and values toward a range of policy issues (Cook 1993). More recent scholarship has found that African American and Latina women differ from white women in terms of candidate affect and vote choice (Simien and Hampson 2017). Feminists are more likely to support certain types of candidates than their non-feminist counterparts because of their social location (race, class and gender). Using data from the 2016 American National Election Studies (ANES), this paper investigates differences among women to determine the impact of multiple group identity on candidate affect and vote choice- that which results in bloc voting and boundary making during the presidential selection process . The paper develops a measure of candidate affect derived from the 2016 ANES. Feminist identity like racial group identity (read: black) should remain a statistically significant predictor of candidate affect even after controls for partisanship and ideology are included in respective models. It is our expectation that African American women and feminists alike will express greater dislike for the Republican candidate (Donald Trump) and this negative affect will serve as a catalyst for political behavior. Similarly, African American women and feminists alike will express greater warmth for the Democratic candidate (Hillary Clinton) and this positive affect will serve as a catalyst for political behavior.  


Name: Ashwini kp
Section: Identity Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: St.Joseph's College
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
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Co-author info: Karamala Areesh Kumar Assistant Professor St. Joseph's College [email protected]
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Paper Title: Analyzing Anti-Caste Movement and Social Change through Digital Activism in India
Abstract:
In the last decade, digital space has gained significant momentum in South Asia particularly in India. Various digital platforms like social media, news websites and many others have enhanced the participation of diverse communities across India. Social movements in India were often confined to mobilization on mass movement on the field. However, in the recent past, marginalized communities in India have adopted new ways of assertion and mobilization. In India caste plays a significant role in determining access to social capital. Likewise, this applies to digital space as well. Digital space in India is often controlled by the elite upper class and upper caste communities. The limited access to digital space for the marginalized has appropriated the narratives of the oppressed. In the last few years, particularly the younger educated classes among Dalits have attempted to create an alternative digital space. There are various digital platforms like Round Table India, Dalit Camera, Savari, Dalit women archives and many others that exclusively focus on caste, social exclusion and issues related to Dalit empowerment. These digital spaces focus on documentation of marginalized narratives that has resulted in knowledge creation which has been excluded or overlooked for decades in both academia and activism. Dalit students have used social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter to mobilize large scale student’s movement. In addition, digital platforms operated by Dalit activists have highlighted the atrocities perpetrated against Dalits and marginalized communities like mob lynching, murders and other violence which is often sidelined by the mainstream media. The creation of these alternative spaces by Dalits has revolutionized and enhanced the anti-caste movement in India. This has expanded the anti-caste movement thereby evolving it into a transnational movement that has gained a global approach. Eventually, digital activism has successfully brought the narratives and discourse of Dalits and other marginalized to the mainstream. This paper will attempt to analyze the evolution of Dalit digital activism in India. It will also examine the challenges that Dalits are subjected to in digital space. The paper will also focus on the aspect of online violence that marginalized communities are subjected to in digital spaces particularly with regard to Dalit women. With rapid globalization and transnational activism in place, digital activism has given a diverse approach to Dalit activism thereby creating an engaging alternative space at national and International platforms. Key Words: Digital Activism, Digital Security, Dalit, Social exclusion, Anti-Caste Movement


Name: Taneisha Means
Section: Identity Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Vassar College
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Ariana Gravinese, Vassar College, [email protected]
Co-presenter info: Ariana Gravinese, Vassar College, [email protected]
Paper Title:  Judging Their Colleagues and Themselves: Black Judges’ Perspectives and Reflections on the Politics of Judicial Decision Making
Abstract:
Because the decisions that judges make are influenced by numerous factors, scholars have concluded that judicial decisions/outcomes and the decision-making process can be political. Yet, there are ways that the courts and judges try to shield themselves from politics and being political. Drawing on interviews and surveys with state court judges, we assess how judges perceive the courts and judicial decision-making. Specifically, we assess judges’ perspectives on the identities, individuals, and groups that influence judicial decision-making. We also explore whether judges’ perceptions and perspectives differ based on their gender and racial identities. This paper contributes to ongoing discourse and research on the politics of judicial decision-making and presents judges’ perceptions and perspectives which scholars and the public rarely have access to.


Name: Tara Riggs
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Binghamton University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Do Women Belong in the Places Where Decisions Are Made? Evidence from an Experiment on Female Candidates and Out of Party Voting in the United States.
Abstract:
While in the ideal world sexism would not play a role in politics, its presence is undeniable- particularly in voting. In this paper, I examine the role gender and sexism play in voting. Will voters prefer an out of party candidate over a female candidate of their self-identified party? Theoretically, female candidates represent a deviation from the status quo. Will this motivate voters to vote out of party ( for a candidate that protects the status quo) when they deem the gender to be critical. In this paper, I present an original survey experiment that examines the role of gender and sexism in voting in which respondents in the treatment are presented with a female candidate of their own self-identified party and a male candidate of the opposite party. Will the introduction of a candidate’s gender change respondents’ choices in voting and drive voters to vote for an out of party candidate?


Name: Howell Williams
Section: Identity Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Western Connecticut State University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Panel
Panel Title:   Author meets critics: Erin Mayo-Adam's Queer Alliances
Panel Description: Author-meets-critics: Queer AlliancesErin Mayo-Adam-authorCharmaine Willis-panelistLisa Beard-panelistHowell Williams-panelistCyril Ghosh-chairThis panel brings together scholars of identity and politics to discuss Erin Mayo Adam’s new book Queer Alliances (Stanford 2020). Queer Alliances investigates coalition formation among LGBTQ, immigrant, and labor rights activists in the United States, revealing how these new alliances impact political movement formation. In the book, Mayo-Adam reveals the extent to which inter- and intra-movement coalitions, formed to win rights or thwart rights losses, represent and serve intersectionally marginalized communities—who are often absent from contemporary accounts of social movement formation.Panelists will discuss the book from diverse methodological and empirical perspectives in order to highlight the important linkages between movements for social change.
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Public Policy and Public Administration

Name: Daniel Assamah
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Rutgers University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  ETHICAL CONCERNS OF FOREIGN AID AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
Abstract:
Despite the consistent increase in foreign aid flow from developed nations, particularly to developing countries, foreign aid's role and impact on these developing countries' growth and development remain debatable among researchers and policymakers. Because foreign aid is considered a unilateral transfer of resources from a donor to a recipient, without any expectation of reward, foreign aid proponents argue it is a moral obligation for the rich to assist the poor. Notwithstanding, the realist paradigm asserts that aid policies are driven by nation-states' strategic interest, questioning the donors' motives. In an attempt to assess the impact of foreign aid on developing country's economies, most researchers have focused on evaluating foreign aid programs' efficiency or effectiveness with the least analysis of its ethical implications. Notwithstanding, most researchers who have reviewed foreign aid programs from an ethical perspective have often based their ethical evaluations on the donor's moral values and not the ethical implications on the recipients. This short paper evaluates foreign aid programs, particularly in developing countries, mainly assessing the motives, means, and consequences. The ultimate goal of this paper is to find out the condition(s) under which foreign aid is ethical through a critical analysis of arguments and counter-arguments on foreign assistance, as well as a review of a relevant case study. But do these ethical implications necessarily have any effect on the recipient country's development? The paper analyses how foreign aid's motives and means have impacted Africa's economic growth and development; and concludes with policy recommendations.


Name: Scott Astrada
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: Georgetown Law
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Marvin Astrada, NYU-DC, [email protected]
Co-presenter info: Marvin Astrada, NYU-DC, [email protected]
Paper Title:  Language and Power: Revisiting the Role of Clarity in Political Discourse
Abstract:
The call for ‘clear language’ as a remedy for propaganda and spin has been at the forefront of modern politics, research and legal discourse. With a broad range of interdisciplinary commentary, political theorists, legal scholars and cultural critics have weighed in on the need for, or the lack of, clear language in the context of political engagement. What then is to be gained by deviating from Orwell’s essay Politics and the English Language, in this broader discussion? Rather than delve into the contrary position to adopting ‘clear language’, one held generally by critical theorists, this paper discusses the instances where ‘clear language’ functions in opposition to dynamic and direct communication in the policy, legal and political process. What are the instances of ‘clear language’ serving as a countervailing force to social progress, and/or evolving social contexts? The reliance on the underlying social framework, for ‘clear language’ to function, is a dependency that can be examined, reassessed, and potentially reframed in exploring the relationship between propaganda and truth, data and spin, and communications to/from/withing the legal and policy community. Contrasting examples can be drawn from legal opinions, policy debates, and legislation to trace the function of ‘clear language’ as a countervailing force against media spin and agitprop, as well as its inverse, in a manner that impedes social progress and the evolution of the various groundings of truth.


Name: Julianna Augello
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Quinnipiac University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  The Perfect Storm: How the COVID-19 Pandemic Has Exposed the Flaws of a Neglectful System
Abstract:
As governments around the globe have imposed lockdowns and stay-at-home orders to contain the spread of Coronavirus, international organizations are reporting a significant increase in domestic violence. This multinational increase sheds light on underlying triggers that are increasing abusive tendencies in the current climate. Yet, domestic violence is often overlooked as a universal concern. Its historical roots are ancient, and deep - only recently has domestic violence been considered a violation of the law. However, domestic violence represents a serious, highly prevalent, and preventable public health problem worldwide. Thus, this paper uses extensive examination of the history of domestic violence responses to argue that the justice system is (and has been long before the COVID-19 outbreak) defective in its handling of domestic abuse cases. While there are still many questions left unanswered about the ways to conceptualize domestic violence in the age of COVID-19, this paper attempts to establish acceptable intervention strategies and reform that will not only carry this broken system out of the current pandemic, but also into the future.


Name: Roman Balaz
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Masaryk University, Fullbright at Boston University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Meso-level policy change and ideas of policy actors: an analytical framework
Abstract:
Do we know how migrant incorporation is governed in various countries with different immigration histories, social values and economic rationales? To what extent do various policy actors (state, non-state, private, and public actors) deploy what migrant integration ideas into the governance of migrant integration? Migrant integration ideas are casual beliefs of whether and why to integrate at all, who should be integrated, where they should be integrated, at what cost, what are the expected benefits, and the like. Is the state or the central government willing to accept this deployment of ideas? If not, to what extent can regulate it? Available knowledge offers merely limited answers to these questions. The research bodies such as the Migration Policy Institute, IMISCOE or the National Academies have produced extensive and admirable knowledge on migration and migrant incorporation. However, several scholars point to a gap in migration and migrant integration research: a lack of meso-level insight on which structural, institutional and organizational features come into play during formulation, implementation, and administration of migrant integration/incorporation policies. There is missing comprehensive view on the interplay among migrant integration structure, societal institutions, and agency of policy actors and immigrants – an interplay which causes meso-level changes during the governance of migrant integration. In this paper, we offer a comprehensive view on the above interplay. The question is: How we can study the meso-level policy change in the governance of migrant integration? For answering the question, institutional and organizational theory, migration and integration studies, and discursive institutionalism are used. The proposed analytical framework: • Structures governance vertically (multi-level view) and horizontally (societal institutions view) • Distinguishes two organizational structures of governance: (1) coordination structure for decision-making, (2) coordination structure for implementation and administration • Incorporates the agency of policy actors into these settings of the governance of migrant integration • Enables us to compare ways of how particular migrant integration ideas become policies and practices in diverse countries Employing the framework, we can shed light on specific governance configurations in various states with different immigration histories, social values and economic rationales. Additionally, it can help us to understand how the interplay among migrant integration structure, societal institutions, and agency of policy actors (including immigrants) might influence the implementation of popular concepts such as diversity management, mainstreaming or city-level governance.


Name: Somabha Bandopadhay
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: SHIVAM PANDEY, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SCHOOL OF LAW AND JUSTICE, ADAMAS UNIVERSITY, KOLKATA, INDIA [email protected]
Co-presenter info: SHIVAM PANDEY, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SCHOOL OF LAW AND JUSTICE, ADAMAS UNIVERSITY, KOLKATA, INDIA [email protected]
Paper Title:  AGRICULTURAL COMMONS: WHERE DOES INDIA STAND?
Abstract:
Commons hold immense significance in the lives of considerable population of every nation, which is hardly in the public domain for discussion. The importance of common pool resources is growing perennially, so is its complex problems decreasing effectiveness. The idea of commons is premised on conservation and preservation of natural resources alongside survival of several communities who are dependent on these commons. The idea propagates a socialistic form of participatory governance of natural resources in a cycle of conservation, dependence and livelihood. Unfortunately, this has been suffering setbacks almost since its inception. Hardin in ‘Tragedy of Commons’ has expressed this view few decades back but societies are far from learning from his observations. The problems suffered by the West and East are surprisingly similar, even though it significantly differs in regard to the economy, technological developments, community’s awareness and adaptability to these. Nobel Laureate Elinor Ostrom has devised, what many subsequent scholars have opined the Indiana model of commons in the West; whereas, N.S. Jodha has considerably contributed to this in India. Common property resource management is the new trend-an alternative, efficient utilization and preservation of natural resources giving way for sustenance of the community to counterbalance the disadvantages they suffer. But, how far has this approach been adequately operated and stakeholders been made aware is doubtful. In India, the Jagpal Singh vs. State of Punjab judgement has for the first time contributed to the jurisprudence of commons in the contrary, if not the only authoritative documents emanating from the Indian legal system. The aftermath of this judgment has been felt in some states, though not all, but their significance is immense. Yet, the lingering question remains on the effectiveness of these policies. The paper proposes to investigate these issues to develop a sustainable model of conservation of nature.


Name: Kevin Bronner
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: Nelson A. Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy, University at Albany
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Kevin M. Bronner, Rockefeller College of Public Affairs & Policy, University at Albany. [email protected]
Co-presenter info:
Paper Title: Did Local Governments in New York State Have Significant Bond Rating Reductions Due to the Coronavirus Pandemic from March 2020 to March 2021?
Abstract:
The paper reviews bond rating changes made by Moody's Investors Service during the coronavirus pandemic period. The bond rating changes for cities, counties, town governments and village governments in New York State will be examined. The paper will show which governments had reductions or increases in bond ratings during the period. The bond rating changes from March 2020 to March 2021 will be examined in the analysis. An analysis will show the degree to which bond rating changes were significantly influenced by the risk to local governments from the pandemic. There is a major risk to local governments from a loss of operating revenues during the period. It is expected that the loss of revenues may have a negative influence on the bond rating process.


Name: Clyde Daines
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: United States Military Academy
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Leighton McAlpin
Co-presenter info: Leighton McAlpin
Paper Title: Factors Determining Which Women’s Sports are Offered in Colleges
Abstract:
Collegiate athletics in the United States, through the Education Amendments of 1972 and its Title IX, have played an important role in the attempt to redress gender inequality. Legally, Title IX holds that “no person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.” However, Title IX does not mandate which sports an academic institution offers, nor is Title IX able to fully address the dominant cultural conceptions that intersect in sport and gender. However, it would be a mistake to overlook how gendered conceptions pertaining to sports impact what sports are offered to women. This paper therefore investigates two things: what other factors influence women’s sport offerings at Title IX compliant academic institutions, and how do traditional gender norms effect these offerings?


Name: Michal Gilad
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: National Prevention Science Coalition
Scheduling Preference:
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Abraham Gutman
Co-presenter info: Abraham Gutman, Philadelphia Inquierer
Paper Title:  The Tragedy of Wasted Funds and Broken Dreams: An Economic Analysis of Childhood Exposure to Crime and Violence
Abstract:
The problem of childhood exposure to crime and violence has been flagged for several decades as a monumental issue of great proportion. We have previously named the problem the Comprehensive Childhood Crime Impact, or Triple-C Impact for short. It was estimated to be one of the most costly public health and public safety problem in our society today. But how much does it cost us? In today’s world, crime penetrates the lives of children from all different directions. Children witness violence at school, in the neighborhood, or even in the “safety” of their own home. Children may also be affected indirectly when parents fall victims to crime, or when a parent is incarcerated. The unique developmental, social, and cultural characteristics of children make them particularly prone to the negative forces of crime. Childhood crime exposure leaves deep scars that gravely affect the health and life outcomes, of affected children. Despite the severity of the Triple-C Impact problem, and the devastating effect it has on millions of children nationwide, little is done on the policy level to heal the open wounds. The majority of children harmed by crime do not receive the much needed services to facilitate recovery from trauma. At present, there are no effective mechanisms in place to identify affected children and refer them to vital services. Although resources and services for affected children do exist in most States, access is obstructed by a myriad of bureaucratic hurdles and flaws in the system’s design. The ramifications of this ongoing state of neglect go beyond compromising the well-being of individual children, and have a spill-over effect on society. With millions of children across the nation untreated and hampered from conducting a healthy and productive lifestyle, and with heightened risk for acute health problems, substance use, criminal behavior, and repeat victimization, community safety is inevitably compromised. These negative outcomes of imposing proportions carry hefty costs that are inevitably shouldered by society as a whole, and unnecessarily burden public funds. Although the attention given to the problem and its costs has repeatedly recrudesced over the years, thus far no one has empirical knowledge as to the exact level of financial expenditure associated with the Triple-C Impact problem. This paper takes on the challenge of pursuing a data-driven economic analysis of the Triple-C Impact problem. The paper designs an economic model, using a cost-of-illness, “bottom up” approach, to evaluate the broad range of cost elements associated with the problem, and to estimate the full cost of the problem to the state and to society. It finds that such expenditure aggregates to a total annual cost of over $458 billion, or a lifetime cost of $194,413 per each affected individual. Ultimately, the analysis presented in this article sets the foundations for the development of an evidence-based argument as to the unparalleled opportunity for long-term fiscal savings and economic benefits of investment in public policies that enable early intervention efforts that will facilitate recovery of affected children and alleviate the risk for injurious outcomes.


Name: Diogo Santos
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Federal University of Maranhão-Brazil
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: Contemporary Studies on Brazilian Law and Politics 
Panel Description: This panel presents a set of views on different aspects of contemporary Brazil. The most populated country and largest economy of Latin America boasts a vibrant and complex society, but also faces daring challenges in some of the areas covered by this panel: government branch relations, corporate compliance, corruption fighting, environmental and urban design.
Co-author info: 1-José Humberto Gomes OLIVEIRA Full professor Federal University of Maranhão 2-Lucas Diego Fabiano FERREIRA Practitioner Bachelor of Laws (LLB) Federal University of Maranhão
Co-presenter info: 1-José Humberto Gomes OLIVEIRA Full professor Federal University of Maranhão 2-Lucas Diego Fabiano FERREIRA Practitioner Bachelor of Laws (LLB) Federal University of Maranhão
Paper Title:  Adoption of children of long-term convicted and imprisioned parentsin Brazil: Children's rights and interests, regulation and best practices.
Abstract:
This casework research intends to investigate the perils and damages to child development within the prison environment. When parents, or legal guardians, are subject to long-term convictions and imprisonment, it may be in the best interest of children (especially infants) to be directed to immediate adoption in order to avoid their exposure to indignant living conditions at Brazilian prisons. In order to achieve the proposed objective, this research describes the living conditions of the prison system in Brazil and the process of imprisonment, focusing on the physical and psychological conditions to which convicted individuals are exposed. In sequence, we discuss the Human Rights of parents, adopters, and adoptees, in the Global, Pan-American and Brazilian legal scopes, especially the treatment given by the 1988 Brazilian Constitution and the Brazilian Statute of the Child and Adolescent. Finally, we discuss the Brazilian State's responsibility in promoting conditions for the children to develop with dignity, in a protected and nurturing environment, the promotion and protection of parents' civil rights, and the adoption as a means to avoid the imprisonment of children and adolescents who have not been convicted.


Name: Erin Vallely
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: SUNY Empire State College
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
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Paper Title:  Suggested Amendments to the Stephen Beck, Jr., Achieving A Better Life Experience (ABLE) Act of 2014
Abstract:
The Stephen Beck, Jr., Achieving A Better Life Experience (ABLE) Act of 2014 (H.R. 647/S.313) requires states to create tax-advantaged savings program for eligible disabled individuals. Each state either has their own program or partners with a neighboring states’ program. In order to be eligible under the ABLE act, individuals must be disabled prior to turning 26 and meet one of the following criteria 1) qualify for Social Security Income (SSI) or Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) because of their disability; 2) have a written diagnosis from a licensed physician documenting a medically determinable physical or mental impairment which results in marked and severe functional limitations; 3) be classified as blind, or 4) have a disability that is included on the Social Security Administration’s List of Compassionate Allowances Conditions. Although lawmakers and supporters hail this legislation as revolutionary, a closer examination highlights the embedded discriminatory and paternalistic nature of the legislation. This policy brief first examines the legislative history of the bill and then offers suggested amendments to improve the program and economic justice for disabled individuals. Keywords: Achieving A Better Life Experience (ABLE) Act of 2014, disability, finance, Ways and Means Committee, Energy and Commerce Committee, Finance Committee, discrimination, paternalism


Name: Nadine Wedderburn
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: SUNY Empire State College
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Susan Young, Ph.D., University College Cayman Islands, [email protected] Nadine V. Wedderburn, Ph.D., SUNY Empire State College, [email protected]
Co-presenter info: Susan Young, Ph.D., University College Cayman Islands, [email protected] Nadine V. Wedderburn, Ph.D., SUNY Empire State College, [email protected]
Paper Title:  Emotional Labor, Public Administration, and Pandemic Response
Abstract:
Newman, Guy and Mastracci (2009) assert that “the most important challenge facing public administrators is not to make their work more efficient but to make it more humane and caring” (p.15). Further, Kiel and Watson (2009) point out that “failure to empathize and manage emotions during citizen contact events can create costs in money and, in the most severe cases, costs in lives” (p.1). Both these claims reinforce the salience of emotional labor to effective public administration across various sectors. Emotional labor may be defined simply as managing one’s emotions, and the emotions of others, to get a job done. Using Mastracci, Guy, and Newman’s (2012) framework, this article presents accounts of how “essential” public sector workers effectively employed emotional regulation strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic to accomplish critical tasks.



State and Local Politics

Name: Michael Catalano
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: SUNY Binghamton
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Matthew Walz, SUNY Binghamton, [email protected]
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Paper Title:  Fusion Voting in New York: Trading Votes for Policy between Political Parties
Abstract:
Fusion voting is a unique electoral institution prohibited by most US states but exercised in a remaining few, most notably in New York. Yet few empirical studies have considered why we see major and minor political parties cooperating through cross-endorsements of candidates. We argue that minor parties offer cross-endorsements (and extra votes) to major party candidates in exchange for policy concessions from major parties and their candidates, particularly where races are competitive. To test this theory, we examine the effects of fusion voting on the roll-call voting records of US House members in the state of New York in relation to House members from non-fusion voting states from 1952-2014. We find that minor party cross-endorsements appear to impact voting records of both Republican and Democratic Congressional delegations from New York, with changing directions of legislative behavior based on the position of the cross-endorsing minor party in relation to the major party whose candidate is being cross-endorsed.


Name: Toby Irving
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: CUNY Graduate Center
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Political Maps and Police Accountability in New York City
Abstract:
In Summer 2020, calls to defund police landed on the front steps of the New York City Council as they approved a budget. While many significant policy areas impacting the City’s most vulnerable, namely housing regulations, are controlled by the State government, the NYPD is a City agency known for the strength of its union and lack of public accountability. Using GIS mapping in conversation with political records, I suggest that the ways in which police precincts overlap with City Council districts contribute to lack of police accountability by elected officials, and thus the public. Some of the most powerful actors in the City Council represent districts covered by six different police precincts, which reinforces the flawed problem-solving processes at the leadership-level and makes impossible precinct-level accountability and change. I suggest that further network analysis should be done regarding the relationships that exist at various geographic and political levels, and potential comparative work to other local models of police accountability.


Name: Jessica Koyner
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Weston High School
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Gen-Z Political Participation
Abstract:
Gen-Z is growing up in a time of political turmoil. Starting with 9/11, the 2008 recession, COVID, calls for racial justice, and the 2020 presidential election, Gen-Z certainly went through many world events before they turned the legal drinking age. Despite all the political turnoffs, Gen-Z is remarkably civically engaged. Gen-Z is also the most left generatio Social media has certainly played a role, but also education as Gen-Zers are on the track to have the most college grads of any other generation. Gen Z in America is the most racially diverse generation as well. But how does Gen-Z fare in local politics? Many small towns have reported an uptick in civic participation from high schoolers and college students. What has driven Gen-Z to participate especially in local politics?


Name: jeffrey kraus
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Administrator
Institution: Wagner College
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Health Policy in the Empire State: Is the Affordable Care Act affordable?, *Jeffrey Fred Kraus
Abstract:
Notwithstanding Joe Biden's overwhelming victory in New York state, President Trump increased the vote for a Republican presidential candidate in Latino neighborhoods of New York. Trump's vote total was higher in the south Bronx and east Harlem, and Biden's share of the vote in these communities was lower than Clinton's total in 2016. This result, along with Republican inroads in Miami and border areas of Texas, suggests that the Democratic Party's message is not resonating with this community. In this paper, I will discuss whether this is the beginning of a long-term trend or an aberration.


Name: Robert Pecorella
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: St. John's University
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: N/A
Panel Description:
Co-author info: None
Co-presenter info: None
Paper Title: Property Rights, State Police Powers, and the Takings Clause: the Evolution toward Dysfunctional Land-Use Management.
Abstract:
This proposed paper focuses on an interdisciplinary research approach to urban regime analysis. It begins by unpacking several terms. Urban regime analysis is best characterized as an approach to urban politics that emphasizes both formal and informal group interactions within a particular governing regime characterized by the existence of systemic power. As defined by Clarence Stone, “systemic power is that dimension of power in which durable features of the socioeconomic system (the situational element) confer advantages and disadvantages on groups (the intergroup element) in ways predisposing public officials to favor some interests at the expense of others (the indirect element)” (Stone 1980: p. 980). In his analysis Davies (2002) points out the inherent tensions between government autonomy and structuralism in the regime approach since “it is concerned specifically with how the dialectic between market control of production and popular control of government affects political action in US cities (2002: p. 2). This paper argues that assessing the balance between market and popular control of local governance within an approach that privileges the market, i.e., systemic power, but acknowledges the potential impact of political activism, i.e., group politics, does not lend itself to any one disciplinary approach. Achieving a more complete understanding of regime politics requires an interdisciplinary approach grounded in “a process of answering a question, solving a problem, or addressing a topic that is too broad and complex to be dealt with by a single discipline or profession” (Klein & Newell, 1997, p. 393). Such an interdisciplinary analysis of a complex system like that represented by urban regimes requires finding the common ground from which a variety of disciplinary scholars can integrate their insights (Repko, 2012, pp. 56-57). Researchers from different disciplines must communicate with each other in ways that maintain disciplinary integrity while permitting cross-disciplinary interactions. Such efforts at cross-disciplinary cooperation involve “social interaction where two individuals enter into each other’s frame of reference, attempt to discuss a problem, try to identify sources of disagreement concerning it, and arrive jointly at a resolution of it” (Repko & Szostak, 2017, p. 271). The main part of the paper suggests an interdisciplinary research model for how political science, sociology, and history can provide an integrated analysis of the operations of urban regimes. The paper employs a “field of consciousness” methodological approach to integrate the work of these three disciplines in situating urban regimes on some common analytical ground allowing for an truly integrative interdisciplinary analysis (Arvidson, 2014). It represents a “new attitude that is just beginning to become less rare: namely, that a focal phenomenon is never presented as isolated from its context, it is presented within a sphere of relevance that must also be articulated in order to accurately describe the phenomenon” (Arvidson, 1998, p. 51). From this more nuanced perspective “attention is best thought of as a heterarchy, not a hierarchy,” meaning “that the context of focal attention and focal attention itself may be presented together and affect each other” (Arvidson, 1998, p. 58).


Name: Brian Williams
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: SUNY Cortland
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Direct Democracy and Voter Turnout at the County Level: The Case of Florida
Abstract:
Paper topic – This study focuses on the relationship between direct democracy (referenda, in particular) and voter turnout, using county-level data from the 2006-2020 general elections in the State of Florida. While previous studies have evaluated the relationship between direct democracy and voter turnout at the state level in the US, this is the first (to my knowledge) to address this question at the county level. Methods – OLS regression models are used to analyze a new county-level panel dataset from the State of Florida. The outcome variable is voter turnout as a percentage of registered voters in each county. The explanatory variables of interest are the total number of referenda on the ballot, as well as more specific variables indicating the total number of referenda addressing fiscal, social, and institutional issues. Preliminary findings - Previous results of the study, using data from the 2006-2016 general elections, showed that county referenda dealing with fiscal issues increase voter turnout during presidential elections. In this update, I add data from the 2018 and 2020 general elections and re-evaluate the results. Thus, the updated dataset will include data four midterm and four presidential elections.



Teaching and Learning

Name: Remi Alapo
Section: Teaching and Learning
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: City University of New York [CUNY]
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: N/A
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Paper Title: Teaching Political Science as an experiential learning project: developing inclusive pedagogy for engaging students in and out of the classroom
Abstract:
Remi Alapo City University of New York (CUNY) Abstract NYSPSA Spring 2021 NYSPSA TEACHING AND LEARNING SECTION December 18, 2020 Topic: Teaching Political Science as an experiential learning project: developing inclusive pedagogy for engaging students in and out of the classroom A presentation on developing inclusive pedagogy for engaging students in and out of the classroom focused on first - hand competency in comparative politics on voting, elections and young people's participation in civic engagement in a democracy. The presenter will discuss the project in detail and how they developed open teaching resources for use in two political science courses which sought to understand paradox change and also in promoting citizenship and engagement in political issues, activities and events that improve student critical thinking and informed decision making in everyday civic life on issues that affect them and their communities. Furthermore, the presenter will discuss developing inclusive open educational resources (OER) which allows students to become more familiar with a framework of the various fields and topic areas in Political Science including American politics, comparative politics, international politics and political philosophy. The presenter previously incorporated this as part of a Service - Learning project at the Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) in collaboration with Community Board 1, Manhattan and affiliated students as volunteers with NYPIRG on voter education and would like to contribute to knowledge sharing at NYSPSA.


Name: Maxwell Burkey
Section: Teaching and Learning
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: Stockton University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: PT 2
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Paper Title: Developing Writing Skills Through Close Readings: Conceptual Outlines, Excerpt Papers, and Primary Texts in the Undergraduate Classroom
Abstract:
Developing skill in expressing oneself orally and in writing is a primary learning objective of both the core curriculums and of political science programs in higher education. In particular, many political science learning objectives encourage students to not only develop clarity in their writing, but also discover their own argumentative voice through engagement with contested political questions, ones that lend themselves to competing interpretations. Indeed, a primary goal of civic education is for students to be able to articulate critical understandings of the importance of such bedrock democratic values as freedom, equality, civic identity, and social justice. In political science classrooms, and especially in the subfield of political theory, this often takes the form of introducing students to key debates via primary texts, focusing on the nuances of textual interpretation. In this talk I will suggest that engaging students in “thick” readings of primary texts is a fruitful vehicle for developing critical writing skills, and that many of the pitfalls of student writing are best remedied by aiding students in closing readings of primary texts: essay writing is best taught through structured reading. I share a couple of strategies I have begun utilizing in undergraduate political science classes—Conceptual Outlines and Excerpt Papers—that incentivize students to read at a granular level and I reflect on how they may help to sensitize students to some of the key features of quality essay writing and argumentative analysis.


Name: Joshua Meddaugh
Section: Teaching and Learning
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Clayton State University
Scheduling Preference:
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: David Peña, Clayton State University Justin Mays, Clayton State University
Co-presenter info: David Peña, Clayton State University Justin Mays, Clayton State University
Paper Title:  Massively Multi-section Online POLS Course (MMOPC): Designing and Instructing American Government for Student Success in the Age of COVID
Abstract:
The paper examines designing an open-access Introduction to American Government course. The stated goal of the design is to create numerous massive online student enrolled sections of POLS 1101: Introduction to American Government while keeping course content, student success, and student experience levels high.


Name: David Pomplas
Section: Teaching and Learning
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Valdosta State University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Review of Literature: Social Capital and Adult Education
Abstract:
Education is underpinned by a series of relationships, including (1) the relationship between learners and curriculum, (2) the relationship between people and delivery mechanisms, (3) relationships between people (learners with peers and learners with the facilitator, and (4) the relationship between learners and the institution of learning, or social capital. Defining social capital is difficult because the definition changes depending upon the Model of social capital used in an analysis. However, most scholars agree on social capital as generally defined as " a collective asset in the form of shared norms, values, beliefs, trust, networks, social relations, and institutions that facilitate cooperation and collective action for mutual benefits" (Bhandari & Yasunobu, 2009, p. 480). Robert Putnam (2000) popularized the term social capital with his text Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. Putnam’s contribution to the discussion is a small portion of a robust body of literature rooted in the educational philosophy of John Dewey. Social capital's cross-disciplinary applicability means that the definition of social capital changes depending on the field and Model used. When placed within a paradigm of Drucker’s view of “the industrial society” (Bowman, 1996, p.191), social capital theory is a useful and underutilized lens of analysis for understanding non-formal workplace education. The purpose of this literature review is to demonstrate the intersectionality of social capital theory and adult education, specifically non-formal workplace education, within the paradigm of the corporate society, based on assumptions that the legitimacy of the corporation rests on adhering to the norms of the society in which it exists (Bowman, 1996). While this paper reviews the literature and debates within education and Social Capital Theory, it does not take a position on those debates. The purpose of this literature review is to advocate for Social Capital Theory as a valid lens of analysis for non-formal workplace education. Bhandari, H., & Yasunobu, K. (2009). What is social capital? A Comprehensive Review of the Concept. Asian Journal of Social Science, 37(3), 480-510. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23655211 Bowman, S.R. (1996). The modern corporation and American political thought: Law, power, and ideology. The Pennsylvania State University Press. Putnam, R.D. (2020). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. (20th anniversary ed. Revised and updated). Simon & Schuster.(Original work published in 2000)


Name: Nayma Qayum
Section: Teaching and Learning
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Manhattanville College
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  War and Peace in Andor: A Portable Simulation
Abstract:
This paper describes a conflict management simulation that instructors can adapt for multiple political science and interdisciplinary courses. Students adopt various roles in a fictitious country falling into conflict. They form coalitions, react to crises, and negotiate various issues leading up to a draft constitution for their new country. They navigate competing interests and reach consensus through a vote. The game accommodates three exercises: coalition formation, reacting to a massacre, and drafting a constitution. Instructors can play this game across two to four class sessions. They can adjust the game to accommodate topics relevant to their classes, such as nationalism, federalism, civil war, democracy, representation, civil-military relations, electoral design, and capitalism.


Name: Yanyong​ Thammatucharee​
Section: Teaching and Learning
Professional Email: [email protected].com
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: Votano Co., Ltd.
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  An Introduction to Action Plan Effectiveness Enhancement Model
Abstract:
As a normal course of business management, problems or issues encountered by a company have to be addressed and resolved on an efficient and effective manner. The process of developing an action plan has been widely applied as a tool to generate solutions for businesses in various situations. In the 20th century, several problem-solving tools had been designed to produce an action plan by basically outlining what, when, who, and how an activity has to be accomplished. Typically, an action plan is generated out of the selected brainstorming and continuous improvement methodologies. Unfortunately, under the current uncertain and disruptive environment, action plans have higher failure rate because they lack the capability to adjust and adapt effectively in response to the challenges. This case study using action research approach tried to understand how to improve the effectiveness of an action plan implementation for a Thai transportation company which planned to prepare itself to be listed in the stock market in Thailand. The result shows that there are critical areas requiring new effectiveness enhancement model to ensure the success of the action plan under implementation. The research question is how to increase the level of success of an action plan implementation. This paper aims to propose an action plan effectiveness enhancement model with vast opportunity for future research.



Undergraduate Research

Name: Gabriel Henrique Alves
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: University of Lisbon - Institute of Social and Political Sciences
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:  Proxy wars and Superterrorism: A new challenge for the international intelligence in the Middle East
Panel Description: An presentation regarding the theme of  “Proxy wars and Superterrorism: A new challenge for the international intelligence in the Middle East”.
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Paper Title:  THE GEOGRAPHY OF HUNGER AND REFUGEE SECURITY DILEMMAS
Abstract:
The last century was surrounded by wars and conflicts, which it designed the security’s agenda around the military aspect. With the post Cold War, the world started to point to new issues and the security meaning has been changed, focusing on different aspects, such as, what is the real meaning for security? For whom? How does international security reflect under non-States actors? For Barry Buzan, there is a need for a board concept for security, that is based on three major points to be evaluated on securitization analysis: “The changing priority among security issues caused by rising density; the useful political qualities of the concept; and its integrative qualities. [...] The rising density of the international system creates a very powerful interplay between anarchy and interdependence”. With this in mind, the migratory crisis is one the main dilemmas nowadays, in view of its background, related to war, armed conflict, religious persecution, environmental hazards and food insecurity. The report published by the World Food Programme (WFP) and International Organization for Migration (IOM) on Novembro 2020, announced 272 million international migrants and refugees in 2019, which 45,7 million are displaced due to conflicts and 5,1 million, as a result of natural disasters. However, 2020 was a year where those people saw borders closing, the lack of international financing, violence, which 1 billion people were considered malnourished, letting those dying not because of COVID-19 but from starvation. The Geography of Hunger is a security dilemma, once armed conflict and food insecurity are linked in a nefarious circle, since they can be triggered for wars, as assumed by the UNSC resolution 2417 and the 2020 Nobel Prize Committee: the “link between hunger and armed conflict is a vicious circle: war and conflict can cause food insecurity and hunger, just as hunger and food insecurity can cause latent conflicts to flare up and trigger the use of violence.” Also, 4/5 of those people are living in nations with precarious levels of food security and 9/10 passed for a strong food crisis. This article has the purpose to analyse the following start question: How does the Geography of hunger, in terms of food insecurity, reverberate on refugee’s security dilemmas, in order to intensify the migratory crisis and the war for survival? Hence, the base theory begins with the securitization of Buzan to introduce this agenda. Therefore, the methodology is based on a comprehensive approach under constructivism, the perspective of Human Geography of Vidal de La Blache and the idea of “vital space” by Ratzel. Finally, the structure of food security and insecurity related to availability, access, utilization dimension and stability, as the main factors for the plasticity and formation of ecumenes, quoted by Max Scorre to appraise the study of migration. Keywords: Securitization; Hunger; Refugees; Geography and Wars.


Name: Abagail Cacovic
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Quinnipiac University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: A New Era For Vaccinations
Abstract:
In uncertain times like these, by not taking advantage of any possible scientific advances in vaccines that have statistical proven to help so many people prevent dangerous and debilitating diseases, the population is leaving ourselves more susceptible than ever. We have more knowledge and better technology than ever before yet, it seems that we are not advancing at the same rate as the science is. There have been landmark decisions such as Jacobson v. Massachusetts, which has set forth that individual liberty is not absolute. There should be more legislation in place to make vaccines more regulated and implement more safeguards for our communities and the health, safety and welfare for individuals everywhere.


Name: James Corl
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Le Moyne College
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  An Examination of The Role of Judiciaries in Autocratizing States
Abstract:
In their broadest sense, institutions of a mixed democracy have served as checks on executives within the democratic system. These organizations are quite paradoxical in nature; although not entirely democratic themselves, due to administrative states being relatively independent of the political arena, they help ensure that the democratic political scene runs smoothly and make sure that the liberal, polyarchic rights outlined by Dahl are not usurped by any one executive. It is in this sentiment that they can be considered “checks” on executives-not in the sense of exclusively being a veto player, but also ensuring that the core pillars of Dahl’s polyarchy are not shattered. However, in recent years, these institutions have come under attack by right-wing populist movements in both the United States and Turkey. Both Turkish President Recep Erdoğan and former United States president Donald Trump effectively used the center-periphery to “otherize” core institutions as corrupt and elitist-two effective plays in the populist playbook. In response, key institutions were either politicized by the administration, or this politicization was attempted, and they were scared off from potential intervention. Both of these examples have played out in recent years in the two countries. For example, after several autocratizing actions, Turkish President Recep Erdoğan pushed through a new constitution in 2017. Among other things, it gave President Erdoğan more power over judicial appointments and jeopardized parliamentary review of these appointments. These officials, who would not be subject to any sort of accountability, have aligned themselves with the ruling party virtually all of the time, a true threat to judicial independence. In the United States, President Donald Trump was accused of “packing the courts” when he, in conjunction with Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, pushed through hundreds of new justices onto benches across the country. This was in addition to his three picks for the Supreme Court-a move that transformed the highest court from one that leaned conservative to one that became extremely conservative. There was much anxiety over this from many critics of the Trump administration, who argued that by rushing through so many picks, many of whom are part of the conservative Federalist Society, President Trump was attempting to keep his policies intact through them if legal cases ever questioned controversial policies or laws enacted under him. In this article, I will talk about the threats facing these judiciaries in the face of rising authoritarianism, but also explore the differences between the Turkish case and the case of the United States. Furthermore, I will argue that a stronger civic culture in the United States’ judiciary and bureaucracy will help the United States recover more quickly from its flirtation with an authoritarian populist. In Turkey’s case, I will argue that the Turkish focus on cultural nationalism, which started with the conflict between the Kemalist tutelary democracy and Democratic Party (DP), and now includes the Justice and Development Party (AKP) has undermined the country’s efforts to successfully stop its autocratic slide. Finally, I will explore how the Turkish state of affairs can serve as a warning for the United States. In my argument, I will state that the civic culture alluded to earlier, while still strong in the United States, is slipping away and turning into a cultural nationalism that may threaten the democracy of the United States as we know it.


Name: Javier Fernandez
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: United States Military Academy at West Point
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Insurgency versus Terrorist Organization: The Christian Identity Movement A Case-In-Point?
Abstract:
Over the past four decades, the United States has seen a resurgence in far-right extremist activity, with groups’ growing physicality drawing the attention of policymakers and scholars alike. There is a vast volume of literature outlining far-right extremist organization and operational capabilities across multiple disciplines. However, contemporary discussions’ focus on these groups as ‘terrorist organizations’ rather than insurgencies, a designation that overlooks the strategic complexity of their motivations and the resources at their disposal. This paper uses the American Christian Identity Movement as a case study. The framework presented for conceptualizing insurgency growth and organization is derived from Seth G. Jones’ Waging Insurgent Warfare: Lessons from the Vietcong to the Islamic State and Bard O’Neill’s Insurgency & Terrorism: From Revolution to Apocalypse.. The following case study highlights the doctrinal differences between ‘terrorism/terrorist organizations’ and ‘insurgency.’ Furthermore, this case study concludes by stressing the importance in classifying the ideology, organizational and operational capabilities of far-right extremist groups in the U.S. as insurgencies and the consequences of that designation.


Name: Michael Gamkrelidze
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: Independent researcher
Professional Status:
Institution: Independent researcher
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: PT 4
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Paper Title:  To science about social boundaries or social ammoriology
Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This paper is a continuation of “Democracy as a State of Social Boundaries”, presented at last year's NYSPSA 73-rd Annual Congress. The idea then was to consider social systems of various sizes and types, from a family of two members to the world community, as dynamic steady state systems, seeing the advantage of this approach in the possibility of describing social systems in non-anthropomorphic terms, free of value judgment and common to physical and biological systems. We proceeded from the fact that the state (condition, order) of the system is a mathematical concept, as well as the boundary, also common to physical and biological systems. We hope that it will gradually relieve us of the need to operate with such controversial and ambiguous terms as capitalism, socialism, democracy, liberalism, and many others. In this article an attempt has been made to outline the taxonomy of social boundaries, their nature, their interdependence, their significance, their variability, their impact on the stability of social systems, on their development, survival in competition, etc. Keywords are: sovereignty, discrete and continuous states of the social system, social boundary


Name: Jessica Gibree
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Quinnipiac University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Lawsuits Lead the Way to Finding a Solution for the Climate Crisis
Abstract:
There is a lack of action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and combat climate change in the United States. As a result, citizens, environmental organizations, and states have turned to the courts, desperate to find a judicial remedy. This paper examines the United States’ current climate protection policies, domestically and internationally. Then, it analyzes three of the many creative claims that parties have brought seeking relief from climate change. The first claim is that the government is violating the constitution, specifically Fifth Amendment Due Process and Equal Protection, and the Ninth Amendment. The next claim is that the federal government is violating the Public Trust Doctrine by causing climate change, which will deprive future generations of natural resources. The third claim is that climate change is a public nuisance because it unreasonably interferes with rights common to the general public. Juliana v. United States, and Rhode Island v. Chevron Corp., are two ongoing cases that the paper discusses to support these claims and prove that the courts must grant relief from climate change. Courts are reluctant to issue policy-making decisions, but this paper proves that they do so when it is necessary. This paper will analyze other common barriers for the courts to grant relief, but ultimately concludes that the climate crisis is worsening, and the courts must act now to protect the climate and citizens of the United States.


Name: Shukri Mohamed
Section: History and Politics
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Le Moyne College
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Naag Nool: Political Struggles of Somali Women in the Liberation Movement and Post-Colonial Politics
Abstract:
Before Colonization, Somali women were acknowledged as peacekeepers, alliance markers through marriage, and vital economic partners to their male counterparts. Although policies during Colonization and Post-Colonialization meant to "liberate" women, these policies' shortcomings showed how significant patriarchy and colonization were to Somalia's development and the beginning of marginalizing women in the political sphere. Policies such as the asnikaax taliani, Italian-Somali marriages showed the disregard for women and their importance as alliance markers in their clans. However, women were still active in the development of Somalia; because women used tactics such as poetry and music, buranbuur to aid in liberating Somalia during the independence movement of the 1950s. Another policy was the Family Law of 1975, a policy that was meant to aid in developing women in Somalia, intellectually and socially, but only furthered the narrative of disregarding women as essential members of Somali politics. Therefore, I argue that Somali women should be offered more essential roles in the political sphere and provide aid to the government during moments of unrest, as shown in the past. I also argue that it is due to Colonialism's patriarchy and remnants that women in Somalia became marginalized. To that end, the first half of the paper will focus on introducing Somalia as a colony of Italy and Great Britain during Colonization. It will then go into the policies and roles that helped or hindered Somali women's development in the independence movement and Siad Barre's regime. The second part will focus on developing the theory of post-colonial feminism in Somalia, explaining the political instability and social unrest that developed as partial respect to women's marginalization as crucial members of society. Finally, the paper will discuss how the country can grow politically and socially by utilizing women's roles in Somalia.


Name: Joel Oyuo
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: University at Albany
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Financial Literacy in the African Diaspora
Abstract:
Faculty Sponsor—Professor Robert Whitaker, Hudson Valley Community College Financial Literacy in the African Diaspora Financial literacy is a vital life skill that everyone must have. The Government Accountability Office defines financial literacy as “the ability to make informed judgments and take effective actions regarding the current and future use and management of money.” However, as a form of education, financial literacy lacks standardization. Rarely are financial education programs incorporated in school curriculums nationwide, leaving financial literacy to be determined based on one’s environment. Acknowledging that one’s environment (socioeconomic status, residential location, race, etc.) is the largest determinant of a student’s financial literacy, it is important to also recognize the many white supremacist practices and ideals that exist today affecting the African Diaspora. With bank deserts (sparsely located banks in areas with large minority or low-income residents), snob zoning (discriminative residential zoning), among many other barriers, it is impossible for Black families (Descendants of Slaves in America, Africans, and Afro-Latinos) as an aggregate to become financially literate. Unfortunately, I have found that an alarming amount of existing research with regards to the inaccessibility of financial literacy is incredibly incomplete and continues to exclude how it impacts the African Diaspora. In order to investigate this issue, I intend to conduct multiple case studies into how the zoning practices in New York cities like Albany, Buffalo, and New York City, still encourage segregation even after such has been illegal decades ago, and how that creates bank desserts and other toxic environments that deny the ability to become financially literate. The government definition of financial literacy, widely used by existing financial literacy programs, fails to consider the fact that societal tools that already exist to become financially literate are inaccessible to the African Diaspora. Many of these programs and workshops, and even tests used by researchers to gauge the financial literacy of targeted sample groups, focus more on things like specific words when it comes to credit cards and loans. However, these can be addressed by simply reading the “fine print,” which is much easier today with an increased access to technology. Therefore, it is not a lack of financial literacy that prevents targeted communities from making “informed judgements” --instead, it is the systemic denial of the necessary tools to be able to make these informed judgements. This whole issue is a small part of a much bigger issue, which is the systematic denial of wealth against Black families in America. Financial literacy should be defined as the ability to use societal tools to create wealth. Wealth creation is financial literacy. While systematic efforts to obstruct financial literacy in Black communities should be counteracted, financial education must also be geared toward accessing the available societal tools, like the stock market and banks, if there shall ever be an end to the racial wealth gap here in America.


Name: Dorian Provencher
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Marymount Manhattan College
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
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Paper Title:  African and Western States’ Approaches to Human Rights: A Theoretical Analysis of State Behavior in the HRC's Universal Periodic Review
Abstract:
The UN Human Rights Council’s Universal Periodic Review [UPR] is the only human rights mechanism that monitors and reviews all UN member states, and states’ responses to each other and their respective human rights abuses vary considerably. What accounts for this variation? This research analyzes states’ behavior and their interactive dialogue around human rights issues by focusing on two African states: Ghana and South Africa. Reviewing the first and second UPR reports from 2008 and 2012 for these two cases, this research paper compares how African and Western states respond to human rights abuses in Ghana and South Africa, and argues that the differences between these two groups can be explained by the different power dynamics between the two regions, using both a realist and a constructivist lens. Understanding how states behave not only contributes to answering the big questions of international politics but also provides insight into the ways through which to progress the global human rights agenda.


Name: Daria Wilk
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: [email protected]
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: St. John's university
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
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Paper Title:  The Northern Ireland Conflict: The Impact of United Kingdom’s Membership in the European Union
Abstract:
Daria Wilk St. John’s University Sponsor faculty: Professor Azzedine Layachi, St. John’s University Undergraduate Panel Proposal Abstract The conflict in Northern Ireland started after the Irish independence war in 1921 and lasted until 1998 when Good Friday Agreement was signed. The conflict left Northern Ireland with not only multiple casualties but also a deep division inside of the society and weak economy. During the conflict the United Kingdom (U.K) and the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community in 1973 (later turned into membership in the European Union- EU); both were members of regional organization during peacebuilding process. The main research question paper aims to answer is: How did the UK’s membership in the European Union and the evolving EU integration affect both, the conflict itself and peacebuilding process in Northern Ireland from 1973 to 2019? The preliminary findings show that the EU was not primary factor behind the peace. However, it aided it in two ways. First, the EU facilitated cooperation between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, which allowed them to build mutual respect necessary for reaching a peace deal. Second, the EU played an important supporting role in peacebuilding through the EU Program for Peace and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland and the Border Region of Ireland (PEACE) and the Interregional Cooperation programs (INTERREG). The PEACE Program aimed at building and fostering peace between two conflicted sides in the Northern Ireland. The INTERREG Program aimed to improve cross-border cooperation between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. It provided opportunities for the two countries to discuss the conflict in the Northern Ireland on neutral grounds, facilitated negotiations and compromise, and pressured the United Kingdom to solve the issue of Northern Ireland. This study uses historical institutionalism as theoretical approach, which looks at how formal and informal institutions affect decision-making processes, policy-building, and policy outcomes. This approach helps uncover how decisions made in the past by institutions affect the future decisions and outcomes. Historical institutionalism acknowledges the impact of multiple actors on decision-making processes; this is important in complex topics like peacebuilding. The paper uses a qualitative method, which gives an in-depth understanding of the topic. The focus was on secondary research, in which multiple primary and secondary sources were gathered to observe changes in the conflict and peacebuilding. The sources aiding the analysis include scholarly publications, official documents, and memoirs. The chosen theoretical approach and methodology allow me to look at the conflict in Northern Ireland in a holistic way instead of just statistical one.



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