Abstract Review

American Politics

Name: Sam Edwards
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: sam.edwards@quinnipiac.edu
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Quinnipiac University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Jacob Park, Ph.D., Green Mountain College, jacob.park@greenmtn.edu
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Paper Title: Recognizing recovery for cultural damages in ecosystem damage and forced relocation cases.
Abstract:
Indigenous communities are often closely tied to their lands. When those lands are harmed through events such as environmental disasters and forced relocation, the communities suffer many harms including harms to their culture. These impacts are especially acute in island communities and other communities with unique lands. Although claims for damage to culture have traditionally been denied, there is an emerging body of law that permits recovery for impacts to culture. This type of damage should be compensated, and courts are the proper place to expand this doctrine of recovery for cultural damage. This research examines three jurisdictions which have recognized recovery for cultural damage. First, this paper examines the Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims case. Although this was an extreme case of forced relocation, it helped establish some of the first precedent for cultural damage. The second section shows how the Stolen Generations Litigation in Australia is helping advance recovery for cultural damage. The final section examines a series of cases involving Native American claims both in tribal courts and in federal courts. Furthering this emerging doctrine would help protect the culture of indigenous communities and is consistent with existing theories of compensation. It is essential that courts in common law jurisdictions should continue to expand cultural damage recoveries especially as climate change forces communities from their lands.


Name: Philip Grant
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: amdgrant@earthlink.net
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Pace University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Congressional Committee Chairmen from New York, 2001-2020 
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper will be to provide a composite profile of congressional committee chairmen from the State of New York between 2001 and 2020. Theses chairmen and their respective committees were: Representatives Benjamin A. Gilman(Foreign Affairs), Peter T. King (Homeland Security), Charles Rangel (Ways and Means), Louise Slaughter(Rules), Jerrold Nadler (Judiciary), Eliot L. Engel (Foreign Affairs), Carolyn B. Maloney (Oversight and Government Reform), and Nita M. Lowey (Appropriations). The eight chairmen, accumulating considerable seniority over several decades, served an aggregate total of two hundred fifty-two years on Capitol Hill.


Name: Jeffrey Kraus
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: jkraus@wagner.edu
Professional Status: Administrator
Institution: Wagner College
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Health Policy in the Empire State: Is the Affordable Care Act affordable?, *Jeffrey Fred Kraus
Abstract:
Notwithstanding Joe Biden's overwhelming victory in New York state, President Trump increased the vote for a Republican presidential candidate in Latino neighborhoods of New York. Trump's vote total was higher in the south Bronx and east Harlem, and Biden's share of the vote in these communities was lower than Clinton's total in 2016. This result, along with Republican inroads in Miami and border areas of Texas, suggests that the Democratic Party's message is not resonating with this community. In this paper, I will discuss whether this is the beginning of a long-term trend or an aberration.


Name: Adam McGlynn
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: amcglynn@esu.edu
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: East Stroudsburg University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Maura Daltwas, East Stroudsburg University, mdaltwas@live.esu.edu
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Paper Title:  Understanding Millennial and Generation Z Opinions of the American Election System
Abstract:
For more than a decade scholars have attempted to analyze the views of millennials and more recently Generation Z to assess their impact on the economy, public opinion and world affairs (see for example Fisher 2019, Parker, et al., 2019). For the most part, the conclusion has been that these groups hold views that are more progressive than older generations. Now, more than ever in recent history, the health and future of our democracy are at question in the face of government’s handling of the COVID-19 pandemic, racism, and the operation of our elections. The latter is the focus of this work. Using Pew Research’s 2018 American Trends Panel dataset, we estimate a series of logistic regression methods to understand how millennials and Generation Z view the American electoral process and their faith in the American election system. Millions of Americans voted by mail in November of 2020 with others unable to vote due to the purging of voter rolls and Voter ID laws so it is imperative that we understand how millennials and Generation Z view the American electoral system as they elect public officials and enter public office themselves to possibly reform it. We find that young people while believing elections are conducted fairly, feel voting is too difficult and needs to be reformed.


Name: Chandrasekhar Putcha
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: cputcha@fullerton.edu
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: California State University, Fullerton
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Dr. Brian Sloboda Vineet Penumarthy
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Paper Title:  Development of a Mathematical Model for prediction of the winner in 2020 American Presidential election
Abstract:
Development of a Mathematical Model for prediction of the winner in 2020 American Presidential election Dr. Chandrasekhar Putcha, Fellow ASCE Professor, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering CSUF’s 2007 Outstanding Professor Dr. Brian Sloboda, Economist, University of Phoenix, School of Advanced Studies, Center for Management and Entrepreneurship Vineet Penumarthy, Design Engineer CSUF graduate, 2016 B.S. mechanical engineering Abstract A mathematical model was developed using engineering analysis based on the principles of probability and statistics. Polling data for the general election from well-known and credible sources (ie. Survey Monkey/Tableau, Survey USA, YouGov/CBS, ABC/Washington Post). The basic premise is that polls will capture the pulse of the people. The model used is a dynamic model, dependent on timing of the poll and political events surrounding the country at that time. Density function of the polling data is constructed, the validity of which is checked using the well known chi-square test. The mathematical analysis showed that the polling data followed a normal distribution. This was followed by the determination of the parameters of the normal distribution and finally the probability of the winning of each candidate (in the 2020 American Presidential election, it is Biden of Democratic party and Trump of Republican Party). The developed mathematical model predicts both the final popularity vote as well as the electoral college votes. The mathematical used predicted popularity vote for Biden and Trump as 49.22% and 45.58% respectively and electoral college votes of 350 and 188 respectively which is pretty close and within the statistical margin compared to the actual American Presidential election results. Another important observation that can be made is that the “silent majority” that helped President Trump in 2016 didn’t play any significant role in 2020 American Presidential elections which would have skewed the results.


Name: Sean Shannon
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: Sean.Shannon@Oneonta.Edu
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: SUNY Oneonta
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Cultural Contradictions: Reinterpreting Trademark Law through the Roberts’ Court’s First Amendment Jurisprudence
Abstract:
Please note: The following abstract was accepted for the 2020 NYSPSA Conference at Manhattan College, which was postponed. Cultural Contradictions: Reinterpreting Trademark Law through the Roberts’ Court’s First Amendment Jurisprudence Section 2(a) of the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1052(a), outlines the guidelines for the United States Patent and Trademark Office to determine words or phrases that can be trademarked. In 2017 the Supreme Court issued an opinion in the case of Matel v.Tam declaring the Lanham Act’s prohibition on registering “disparaging” trademarks unconstitutional in violation of the First Amendment’s free speech clause. The case concerned the punk rock band, The Slants, a disparaging reference to Asians. This past June, the Court continued to limit the Lanham Act in the case of Iancu v. Brunetti, when it declared the prohibition on “immoral” and “scandalous” trademarks unconstitutional, permitting the registration of the word FUCT as a trademark. Since joining the Supreme Court, Chief Justice John Roberts has led a revolution in First Amendment jurisprudence. Much of the focus has been on religious cases, but less noticed have been to the changes in trademark law, commercial speech, which represent an interesting cultural contradiction for conservative Supreme Court justices and worthy of further analysis and discussion. The paper will evaluate and address the cultural contradictions of permitting disparaging, scandalous, and immoral trademarks and the reasons why the Roberts Court may be leading the change.


Name: Brian Sloboda
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: bsloboda@email.phoenix.edu
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: University of Phoenix
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Chandrasekhar Putcha, California State University at Fullerton, cputcha@fullerton.edu Vineet Penumarthy, California State University at Fullerton
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Paper Title:  Development of a Mathematical Model in the Prediction in the 2020 Presidential Election
Abstract:
A mathematical model was developed using engineering analysis based on the principles of probability and statistics. Polling data for the general election from well-known and credible sources (ie. Survey Monkey/Tableau, Survey USA, YouGov/CBS, ABC/Washington Post). The basic premise is that polls will capture the pulse of the people. The model used is a dynamic model, dependent on the timing of the poll and political events surrounding the country at that time. The density function of the polling data is constructed, the validity of which is checked using the well-known chi-square test. The mathematical analysis showed that the polling data followed a normal distribution. This was followed by the determination of the parameters of the normal distribution and finally the probability of the winning of each candidate (in the 2020 American Presidential election, it is Biden of the Democratic party and Trump of the Republican Party). The developed mathematical model predicts both the final popular vote as well as the Electoral College votes. The mathematical used predicted popularity vote for Biden and Trump as 49.22% and 45.58% which is consistent with the statistical margin compared to the actual American Presidential election results. Another important observation that can be made is that the “silent majority” that helped President Trump in 2016 did not appear to play any significant role as in the 2020 American Presidential elections which could have skewed the results.


Name: Adam Stone
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: astone@gsu.edu
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Georgia State University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  A Legacy of Political Polarization in the Senate: Trump’s Circuit Court Judges
Abstract:
Prior to the Trump Administration, final U.S. Senate confirmation votes on nominees to the U.S. Courts of Appeals were voice votes and those that were tallied provided lopsided majorities in favor of the nominee. In one term, President Trump filled 30% of the 179 judgeships and changed the partisan makeup of several circuits so that Republican nominees now control the majority of circuits. The aggressive nomination and confirmation process further polarized the Senate. As Parshall and Twombly’s Directing the Whirlwind: The Trump Presidency and the Deconstruction of the Administrative State (2020) points out, Trump has gone to extraordinary lengths to appoint conservative judges dedicated to diminishing the power of the federal government. This paper uses OLS regression analysis to examine the final U.S. Senate confirmation votes on the 54 Trump nominees during the 115th and 116th Congresses. Most of these votes are close to the party division in the chamber. For those nominees who receive support beyond the party division, diversity in race and gender as well as previous judicial service at the state or federal level increased levels of support on final confirmation. Membership in The Federalist Society is a significant factor in limiting support for nominees. While the legacy of battles over Trump’s appellate nominees has further polarized the Senate, individual senators do act like baseball umpires and “call them as they see them” for each nominee.


Name: Eric Svensen
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: eps007@shsu.edu
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Sam Houston State University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Comparing Legislative Productivity across Time and Space
Abstract:
Previous research on legislative productivity has focused much of its attention on the total number of enactments, in particular landmark legislation, to gauge presidential and congressional success. These measures are used to not only rank the policy successes of presidents but are also used to compare the accomplishments of unified and divided governments. While this approach conveys some sense of legislative performance, in reality this measurement practice can both over and underestimate policy achievements. This practice, for example, raises numerous questions as to whether presidents with large congressional majorities underperformed relative to comparable governing circumstances (or, in contrast, whether chief executives sharing political power with the political opposition over-perform). To answer these questions, this study creates a measure that places all legislative enactments since 1789 into a single base metric that adjusts for legislative enactments for all congressional terms and presidential administrations that is comparable across time and space. Preliminary evidence suggests landmark legislation is not always a viable predictor of legislative productivity.


Name: Gabriella Walker
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: gabriella.walker@wagner.edu
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Wagner College
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Environmental Investment in the ACA’s Preventative Public Health Initiatives
Abstract:
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) seeks to reform the United States health care system. Though its efforts are expansive, its success has been disputed. We predict that by using funding allocated to the Prevention and Public Health Fund to increase community environmental infrastructure, sustainable mitigation of leading chronic illnesses may be accomplished. We compiled raw data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and local government statistics to evaluate such theories in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This data was compared to scholarly sources dedicated to the intersection of public and environmental health to determine efficiency of both public and private funding utilization within the city. Based on these findings, we found that green initiatives may parallel decreased chronic disease on a community level.



Comparative Politics

Name: Tem Alabi
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: taalabi@noun.edu.ng
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, ABUJA
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Gender and Politics: The Nigerian Experience
Abstract:
In most political discourse men are regarded as political or intellectual subjects while women continue to be largely marginalized from the political sphere. Nigerian women are still some distance away from gender equity and balancing and this is often as a result of discriminatory laws, practices, attitudes and gender stereotypes, low levels of education, lack of access to health care and the disproportionate effect of poverty on women. This paper examines these obstacles; it explores how women interact with political structures and how they mobilize themselves to impact the state, society, and legal systems as well as regional and international systems. Thus, it studies Nigerian women’s participation in the political arena, their challenges and struggles for their rights and their impact on their countries’ laws and policies drawing example from the American democracy. The paper further emphasises the importance of valuing women in a society that has long devalued their contributions with special reference to the emergence of a black female American president. It concludes that while women have made inroads in many areas, traditionally gendered needs should be recast in order to liberate women and recommends that the playing field needs to be level, opening opportunities for all. KEYWORDS: Culture, Gender, Democracy, Elections.


Name: Mehmet Evrim Altin
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: m.altin@iubh.de
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: International University of bad honnef
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Modern Religion War in Turkey: Erdogan’s National Political Islam against Gülen’s Global Social Islam
Abstract:
Unlike the expectations of the founders of Turkish Republic, religion, specifically Islam, increased its power and influence in Turkish society exponentially especially after the nineteen- fifties. Two channels, such as Erbakan’s political Islamic movement, so-called National View, and Said Nursi’s social Islam movement, so-called Nur Movement, played crucial roles in this increase and despite the pressure of the secular state, they achieved remarkable success in expanding Islamic understanding to the society. Their followers, Erdogan from the political wing and Gülen from the social wing, used their legacies wisely and defeated the secular part of the society in the last two decades. However, unlike founders Erbakan and Said Nursi, Erdogan and Gülen started to fight in the political scene in Turkish society and today these two movements blame each other of being heretical and blasphemy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the main differences in these two movements and why these two movements waged war against each other despite their common religious understanding. A qualitative research design is used to study this issue. Semi-structured expert interviews are conducted with experts of the subject. The results show that because of the ideological differences between political Islam and social Islam approaches, there are remarkable differences between Erdogan and Gülen. Besides, both Erdogan and Gülen, transformed the legacies of Erbakan and Said Nursi from different perspectives. Erdogan mixed Erbakan’s international Islamic understanding with Turkish nationalism and built a national right wing alliance, which is promoting neo-Ottomanism. On the other hand, Gülen transformed Said Nursi’s local social Islamic understanding to an international social network with different type of institutions, such as schools, help organizations and interfaith-dialog institutions. His movement promotes global understanding based on global ethics and trade. Turkey and Turkish society inside and outside of Turkey are the major sources of these movements, which is one of the other reasons behind the fight, especially after the failed coup attempt. Keywords—Gülen Movement, Erdogan Administration, National View Movement, Political Islam, Social Islam, Nationalism.


Name: Ikenna Alumona
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: im.alumona@coou.edu.ng
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Anambra State
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Aniche Ernest Federal University Otuoke, Bayesla State, Nigeria anicheet@fuotuoke.edu.ng
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Paper Title: Responsibility without power: Federalism and the Dilemma of Internal Security Management in Nigeria 
Abstract:
Security has taken the centre stage in political discourse in Nigeria like in most developing countries. Across the different geo political zones in the country, different factors of insecurity have continued to take a heavy toll on lives and properties. Yet, the challenge of maintaining security in the country is compounded by the nature and character of Nigeria’s federal governance structure that vests the sole constitutional responsibility of security maintenance on the federal government leaving the constituent states with no formal control over the security forces. This paper argues that the contradictions of Nigeria’s federal governance is not only undermining the maintenance of security but has compounded the inability of federal government to adequately supervise the pervasive and increasing involvement of vigilante groups, private security companies and ethnic militias in internal security management. Keywords: Security, Federalism, Internal Security Management and Governance.


Name: Meseret /Macy Demissie
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: mdemissi@uottawa.ca
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: University of Ottawa
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-presenter info: Professor Meseret/Macy Demissie, PhD Sorbonne University (Paris-1) The University of Ottawa, School of Political Studies mdemissi@uottawa.ca macydem@yahoo.ca
Paper Title:  Global Governance of the Environment and the Role of International Law in Shaping World Politics: What are the Impacts of International Environmental Law on Nation- States’ Sovereignty over their Natural Resources Management?
Abstract:
This comparative analysis focuses on contemporary geopolitics and international security in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Since the early 1960s, there has been a growing demand for environmental protection around the world. There has been some progress in global environmental governance. But, at the same time, there is growing anxiety on the part of international society, both the State and non-state actors, due to the discrepancy of international norms and institutions governing international rivers and its impact on the economic development of nation-states sharing the same rivers basins. Using the cases study of the Nile River, (involving 11 states in North Africa and the Middle East), the Mekong River, and the Mesopotamian Rivers (the Euphrates and the Tigris), this paper seeks to comparatively examine the impact of international law on nation-States’ rights to economic development and their obligations to do ‘no harm’ to the other States national interests in the process, as well as the progress made in terms of global governance, particularly in the sphere of international water law. What are the Impacts of International environmental law on nation-states’ sovereignty over their natural resources management? In other words, what is the impact of international law on the States’ ability in managing their natural resources? Usually, weaker States rely on international law to defend their rights to economic development while hegemonic States use their military and economic might to impose their views. We postulate that power and influence always play a key role in global environmental governance. International law is shaped by great power politics and the balance of power that determines the outcome. And international water law will continue to reflect the reality of world politics on the ground rather than shaping world environmental politics. We will review research findings on the three case studies that are conducted between 1990 to 2020 so as to verify our hypothesis. The selected periods are of special interest due to the major shift that has occurred in global politics and world order since the 1990s. Keywords: Global governance, International Water Law, Power, Security, the Balance of Power, Natural Resources Management, Mekong River, the Nile, Tigris, and the Euphrates


Name: Changwook Ju
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: changwook.ju@yale.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Yale University
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Why Do Military Officers Condone Sexual Violence? Toward a General Theory of Commander Tolerance
Abstract:
Why do commanders tolerate sexual violence by subordinate soldiers? Preoccupied with soldiers’ motives, commander tolerance is mostly taken for granted in existing explanations for military sexual violence (MSV). I argue that, to understand MSV that recurs despite its formal prohibition, scholars must specify conditions under which commanders tolerate it. I build on recent departures from existing principal–agent models of MSV to construct a theoretical framework for commander tolerance and derive its implications for a general theory. Its core theoretical proposal is that commander tolerance hinges on micro-level factors that predispose individual commanders to tolerating MSV, meso-level factors that arise from their interactions with their subordinates, peer commanders, and supervisors, and macro-level factors that surround commanders and create disincentives to effective punishment. In practice, commanders often have ample socio-military incentives to tolerate MSV, while the effects of their successful punishment are unlikely to stand out as an achievement and/or only expose existing command failures. This article—despite its focus on MSV—represents the first systematic cut at a general theory of commander tolerance for a prohibited form of violence.


Name: Iraj Rahimpourasl
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: i.rahimpourasl@stu.yazd.ac.ir
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Yazd University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:  South Caucasus
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Aseeye Sadat Abdolahzade, Bachelor's of Science student in International Relations, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza Branch
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Paper Title:  South Caucasus: strategic Threats or opportunities facing Iran
Abstract:
The complicated patterns of relations of Trans-regional powers in regional security complex of the South Caucasus, on one hand, and weak state of factors of region geopolitics, on the other hand, leave countries of the region in a state of insecurity, As a result, either behavior of these countries is even more aggressive in the international arena, or they seek an alliance with regional or trans-regional powers, The presence of trans-regional powers is also associated with contradiction and spread of threats, therefore, in case of strike with wonder and failure to act in a timely manner, serious consequences will await the national interests and national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Hence, the patterns of relations between the trans-regional powers and the strategic threats or opportunities facing Iran in the South Caucasus have been studied by using Barry Buzan’s Regional Security Complex Theory. Findings of study show that; A), The countries of the South Caucasus seek to establish military alliances with trans-regional powers to strengthen their military power, which conflict inherently with Iran's national security and national interests in the region. C) Turning the nature of opportunities into threats, to prevent the restoration of Iran's regional and international position.


Name: Alice Timken
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: act490@nyu.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: New York University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:  Comparative Analyses: Nationalism in Effect
Panel Description: This panel looks at civic and ethnic nationalist programs in strategy, means, and outcome ("effect") through comparative analysis, with emphasis on nationalism as a multi-level, rather than rhetorical, phenomenon.
Co-author info:
Co-presenter info: Rahul Thayil; rt2191@nyu.edu (separate paper, on panel)
Paper Title: Networks, Access and Competition: Immigrant Social Capital and Refugee Integration
Abstract:
What factors facilitate successful refugee integration? Might co-nationals, meaning individuals from the same country, support the integration process? It appears refugees are asking the same questions. Almost one fifth of refugees in the US opt for in-country secondary migration, often correlating with two factors: a destination’s relatively low unemployment rate and its existing co-national network. Combined, these pull factors can be understood to indicate sources of social capital to migrating refugees, who seek larger and higher quality co-national networks to provide greater access to resources. While extant quantitative studies hold that co-national social capital has a positive effect on immigrant economic integration, it is less clear how it affects non-economic integration types, which are also crucial to substantive community membership. Conducted within a social capital theory framework, this large-N comparative analysis utilizes a quasi-natural experiment to examine the effect of a state’s share of co-nationals and employment rate on three types of refugee integration: economic, linguistic and navigational. My results suggest that co-national social capital is influential in immigrant integration and that the variables that refugees often prioritize during secondary migration – low unemployment rate and existing co-national network – may effectively encourage multiple types of immigrant integration. This is the first large-N quantitative study to emphasize the relationship between co-national networks and non-economic immigrant integration outcomes. Additionally, it contributes to the literature on immigrant integration by adopting a social capital theory framework and has immediate implications for US refugee policy.


Name: Godwin Unanka
Section: Comparative Politics
Professional Email: gunanka@yahoo.com
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Imo State University, Owerri - Nigeria
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Juliet A. Ndoh Dept. of Political Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. Email: anuligr8@gmail.com And Paschal Igboeche-Onyenweigwe, PhD Dept. of Political Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. Email: igboechepascal@gmail.com
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Paper Title:  Bottom-Up Participatory Governance and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Extrapolating the Indissolubility of Village Governments in New York State
Abstract:
ABSTRACT In the midst of claims to democracy and participatory governance in developed and developing countries of the world, this paper examines the link between participatory governance and sustainable development (1) to determine the type of participatory governance preferred and perceived to be the appropriate form of true democracy for achievement of sustainable development in two cross-ethnic states of Imo and Akwa-Ibom, Nigeria, and (2) by extrapolation, to explain the indissolubility of village governments in the state of New York, USA. In pursuit of these objectives, the study assumes that while the people (citizens) yearn for bottom-up (community-grown) participatory governance in developing countries, village-community governments, when established in developing and relatively developed democracies, are indissoluble. Accordingly, if bottom-up (community-based) participatory governance is a preferred true democratic strategy for achievement of sustainable development in a developing state/country, it will explain resistance to the dissolution of village-community government in a developing or developed democracy. Using a descriptive-survey-correlational design and a randomly selected sample of 904 indigenes/residents of two cross-ethnic states of Nigeria, the study found that in Imo and Akwa Ibom States of Nigeria, the people perceive and prefer the Bottom-Up Community-Grown Participatory Governance as a form of True Participatory Democracy at the Local Government Level of governance for the achievement of Sustainable Development. The push for the dissolution and consolidation of village and town governments in New York State makes fiscal sense, but from a noneconomic perspective of community-survival, albeit, perspective of achievement of good governance and participatory true democracy, it becomes even more explainable why the citizens are likely to reject the dissolution of village governments. Accordingly, the paper recommends for Nigeria: (1) That the Bottom-Up Community-Grown Participatory Governance (albeit, village-community form of governments) should be established in states yearning for such, to replace the current dysfunctional local government system and accordingly facilitate the achievement of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (2016-2030) in Nigeria, and (2) To sustain grass root participatory democracy in New York State, village governments should be preserved and even where the citizens vote for dissolution for fiscal considerations, the village government could be consolidated in the town government while preserving the village-community identity therein to retain its indissoluble role in bottom-up community-grown participatory governance.



History and Politics

Name: Sam Goodson
Section: History and Politics
Professional Email: sgoodson@gradcenter.cuny.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: CUNY Graduate Center
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Christopher Putney, cputney@gradcenter.cuny.edu
Co-presenter info: Christopher Putney, cputney@gradcenter.cuny.edu
Paper Title: The People’s Party in American Political Development: Rethinking Populism and Democracy in the American South
Abstract:
Perhaps no concept has become more ubiquitous among scholars of contemporary “democratic backsliding” and “norm-erosion” than populism. Populist movements, with their firm distinctions between a political “us” and “other”––coupled with a native disdain for formal institutions and elites––are thought to threaten the very fabric of pluralistic liberal democracy. There is no question that contemporary liberal democracies face threats more dire today than in at least a generation; and that some leaders routinely described with the populist epithet have played key roles in orchestrating such threats. But is it simply the case that populism remains an engine of this assault on democratic norms? Against that prevailing ahistorical view, this study makes the case that major populist movements in the United States have actually stood as the greatest harbingers and defenders of democracy. By rethinking the theoretical and political contributions of the People’s Party of the 1890s––as well as its signal political and theoretical antecedents––we trace the contours of a better framework for understanding populism writ large. Revisiting populist activity across the nineteenth-century American South, new questions emerge from this framework; not just about the substantive meaning of populism, but about how and why the “populist moment” subsumed several pre-existing political logics, and––in the crucible of political strife––conjoined them into new forms of political awareness, dissent, and organization. Moreover, we show how populists could contend with, but ultimately go beyond, traditional forms of contestation over the ends and means of federal power in the United States to the core dilemmas of liberal modernity itself. Finally, by critiquing and revising competing accounts of this period with an eye towards contemporary threats to democracy, we show that––rather than a primary threat to democractic governance––populism has been a primary vehicle for democratic renewal in American history.


Name: Krishnan Raman
Section: History and Politics
Professional Email: ramank0@yahoo.com
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: None [ Retired ]
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: Some Political Issues Relating to Place and Movement
Abstract:
This paper discusses political issues relating to an Individual’s Right to a Place and a Right to Free-Movement. Such issues should be addressed at a human level, and not within existing formal structures and rules. a. The Right to a Place: What decides the right to belong to a community, or to dwell in a land ? Who decides , and lays down the rules ? b. The Right to Move, to Migrate, in order to make possible building a new life. Can Immigration to another land be considered a right ? A Possible Rationale – based on Fairness : Resources worldwide are not available equitably. What can justify that people in one land enjoy abundant resources, while people in another barely subsist ? Is it just that they got there first ? Did that also give them the right to prevent others from coming in ? The apparent dominant world-view -- the people who came first had full ownership rights, and the right to pass them on to descendants. – But don’t people in need have a moral right to a place to live in ? For a land with large resources – should it not have a duty to accommodate newcomers in need ? Such as People with Inadequate living conditions in their own land, or Refugees. How do we set up a framework.balancing the requirements of Fairness and Resource Availability ? --- Different underlying world-views : a. An Isolationist ‘Island’ view – each nation is like an independent island and fends for itself. b. A broad inclusive view -- that all are interconnected and interdependent. Globalization -- To some it meant that the world was one’s domain for making profit. To others it meant a genuine move towards extended interaction and exchange for the benefit of all. Transnational Communities: A community need not be defined by a common spatial location. They may be “Imagined Communities”. Historical examples : Sharing the “White Man’s Burden” ; OR Belonging to the same faith, e.g. Christianity or Islam. The Diasporas in today’s world can provide a strong community force. The Internet and Social Media for creating Virtual Communities in Cyberspace: These can create large communities, and also provide a strong political force. The Need for New World-Views and Paradigms How can we make the equitable sharing of Resources, including Land, a Norm in our Thinking ? How can the resource-rich “Have” communities and Nations be persuaded to share resources with “Have-Not” communities and nations ? And the historically dominant role of Power and Military & Economic Might -- can they be countered and softened ? New paradigms need to be generated which will help move the world toward such a transformation. Perhaps a combination of a Moral Approach – a new meta-level Human Ethic ; together with the unifying forces of multiple Diasporas; and wide-ranging pervasive Virtual Communities made possible by the Internet and Social Media , can help us chart a road toward a more inclusive, interconnected, world society, based on Fairness and equitable sharing.


Name: Harvey Strum
Section: History and Politics
Professional Email: strumh@sage.edu
Professional Status: Full Professor
Institution: Russell Sage
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: none
Co-presenter info: None
Paper Title:  Foreign Policy's Impact on Local and State Politics in New York, 1807-1815
Abstract:
Between 1807-1815 foreign policy and domestic national issues were superimposed upon existing political divisions in New York. They reinforced certain divisions---Federalists vs Republicans and altered others---factional divisions within the Republican Party. Contrasting trends emerged. Voting behavior between 1807-15 revealed the importance of localism in state politics. Federalist gains in the Assembly elections of 1808-09, 1812-13, and 1815, the State Senatorial elections of 1809, gubernatorial election of 1813, and congressional election elections of 1808 and 1812 represented a repudiation of the foreign policies of Jefferson and Madison---of the embargo and War of 1812, and not the Republican Party. Especially, between 1808-1815 foreign policy and its impact on the lives of New Yorkers emerged as the major issues in town, city, state legislative, congressional, and gubernatorial elections. After 1800 a majority of New York's voters identified with the Republican Party but the foreign policies of Jefferson and Madison allowed for the political resurrection of the Federalist Party at the local and state level. New York entered the War of 1812 politically divided, as suggest by De Witt Clinton's presidential bid, and the results of the 1815 state elections confirmed the divisiveness of the war as many New Yorkers saw the war as a war of party, not country.



International Relations and American Foreign Policy

Name: Isil Akbulut-Gok
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: akbulutgoki@sacredheart.edu
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Sacred Heart University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Multiparty Mediation Effectiveness in Civil Wars
Abstract:
This paper investigates the impact of collaborative efforts in multiparty mediation. Although some recent studies have examined how intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) collaborate in peace processes and how civil society organizations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) account for the success of peacebuilding efforts, there have been no systematic efforts to assess relationships built between IGOs, NGOs and states and how the engagement of these multiple actors affects mediation effectiveness in civil wars. This article argues that cooperative multiparty mediations are more likely to be effective in managing conflicts.


Name: Meseret /Macy Demissie
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: mdemissi@uottawa.ca
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: University of Ottawa
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-presenter info: Professor Meseret/Macy Demissie, PhD Sorbonne University (Paris-1) The University of Ottawa, School of Political Studies mdemissi@uottawa.ca macydem@yahoo.ca
Paper Title:  Global Governance of the Environment and the Role of International Law in Shaping World Politics: What are the Impacts of International Environmental Law on Nation- States’ Sovereignty over their Natural Resources Management?
Abstract:
This comparative analysis focuses on contemporary geopolitics and international security in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Since the early 1960s, there has been a growing demand for environmental protection around the world. There has been some progress in global environmental governance. But, at the same time, there is growing anxiety on the part of international society, both the State and non-state actors, due to the discrepancy of international norms and institutions governing international rivers and its impact on the economic development of nation-states sharing the same rivers basins. Using the cases study of the Nile River, (involving 11 states in North Africa and the Middle East), the Mekong River, and the Mesopotamian Rivers (the Euphrates and the Tigris), this paper seeks to comparatively examine the impact of international law on nation-States’ rights to economic development and their obligations to do ‘no harm’ to the other States national interests in the process, as well as the progress made in terms of global governance, particularly in the sphere of international water law. What are the Impacts of International environmental law on nation-states’ sovereignty over their natural resources management? In other words, what is the impact of international law on the States’ ability in managing their natural resources? Usually, weaker States rely on international law to defend their rights to economic development while hegemonic States use their military and economic might to impose their views. We postulate that power and influence always play a key role in global environmental governance. International law is shaped by great power politics and the balance of power that determines the outcome. And international water law will continue to reflect the reality of world politics on the ground rather than shaping world environmental politics. We will review research findings on the three case studies that are conducted between 1990 to 2020 so as to verify our hypothesis. The selected periods are of special interest due to the major shift that has occurred in global politics and world order since the 1990s. Keywords: Global governance, International Water Law, Power, Security, the Balance of Power, Natural Resources Management, Mekong River, the Nile, Tigris, and the Euphrates


Name: Joseph Garske
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: jpg.today@yahoo.com
Professional Status: Administrator
Institution: The Global Conversation
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  DECLINING STATE AND ASCENDING CORPORATION IN THE GLOBAL RULE OF LAW
Abstract:
There are many ways to understand the methods of global governance being constructed in the twenty-first century. Yet, no aspect of that project is more fundamental than the legal basis on which global order will be established. Although much of this legal development occurs beyond public view, or even beyond public awareness, there are ways in which those developments can be brought to examination. One approach is to compare the declining role of the state with the ascending role of the corporation, two primary legal structures in the ordering of a global future. Changing patterns of governance are arising from a convergence of the two great Western legal traditions, Civilian and Anglophone. In an era marked by disruptive technological innovation and linguistic Anglicization, the principled methods of the Civilian are being subsumed by the pragmatic methods of the Anglophone. Comparing the Civilian origins of the modern nation-state with the Anglophone origins of the modern multi-national corporation provides a way of understanding a post-modern Rule of Law that is being constructed over all peoples and regions of the earth.


Name: Keith Preble
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: kpreble@albany.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: University at Albany, SUNY
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Charmaine Willis, cwillis@albany.edu
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Paper Title:  Trading with Pariahs: International Trade and North Korean Sanctions
Abstract:
For decades, the international community has targeted North Korea with economic sanctions, seeking not only to keep the nuclear bomb out of North Korean hands but also to potentially cause regime change and weaken the military. However, many in the academic and policy communities have labeled the North Korean sanctions regime a failure. Why has North Korea been able to evade the pressure of international sanctions more effectively than other targets, such as Iran and Myanmar? Recent scholarship argues that the answer is largely that North Korean elites are insulated from domestic pressures brought on by economic sanctions. We argue that another part of the puzzle involves third-party sanctions-busting from countries beyond North Korea’s two major trading partners, China and South Korea. Furthermore, the failure of North Korean sanctions is the result of North Korea’s network of trading partners. In this study, we explore trade and sanctions-busting trends using UN Comtrade sectoral data from 1990 to the present to show how this network has allowed North Korea to evade the pain of economic sanctions. The theory we develop here may also explain the failure of other economic sanctions programs to bring about desired policy change.


Name: Jenna Russo
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: jrusso2@gradcenter.cuny.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: The Graduate Center, CUNY
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  A New Era of Protection? Analyzing Civilian Harm Mitigation in US Military Doctrine and Operations
Abstract:
Over the past twenty years, the protection of civilians has received increasing attention in conflict environments. While there is a growing literature on civilian protection, most research to this point has focused on UN peacekeeping environments, while less has been written about implementation by national governments and military institutions. This paper aims to fill that gap, focusing in particular on US implementation of civilian harm mitigation into military doctrine as well as planning and operations. While the US has begun to increasingly incorporate civilian harm mitigation into military doctrine, implementation has been uneven and largely ad hoc. The paper looks at evidence of implementation in the Afghanistan, Syrian and Iraqi contexts, and also considers barriers and enablers for implementation.


Name: Robert Whelan
Section: International Relations and American Foreign Policy
Professional Email: rwhelan1@binghamton.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: SUNY Binghamton
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: PT 1
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Paper Title:  The Nature of 'Greedy' Motives: Exploring the Role of ‘Sacred Values’ in International Relations Theory.
Abstract:
While research in social psychology by Philip Tetlock and Jeremy Ginges suggests that ‘sacred values’ (SV) play a salient role in fomenting political conflict, little attempt has been made to utilize SV as an explanatory variable in international relations (IR) theory. Broadly construed, values are ‘sacralized’ if a community treats them as possessing a transcendental significance that precludes comparison or exchange. Importantly, practices which fail to promote SVs by encouraging trade-offs with ‘secular’ values (those without an immeasurable worth) are condemned as taboo. In responding to taboo exchanges, those with SV behave as ‘devoted’ rather than rational political actors, adopting a cost-insensitive logic that favors violence over compromise. Here, I argue that incorporating SV into the analysis of state behavior will help to strengthen the explanatory and predictive power of IR theories. To assess the import of these findings, I draw on Charles Glaser’s ‘contingent’ defensive realism in which ‘greedy’ (non-security) expansionist motives constitute an important independent variable. Linking the psychological literature to Glaser’s work substantiates the causal role afforded to motive without downplaying the effects of structural factors, as Andrew Kydd’s ‘motivational’ realism seems to (as do many second image accounts). Yet, the psychological literature also suggests important modifications to Glaser’s account. For instance, Glaser suggests that Greedy States could be restrained by material conditions that render competition inefficient. Thus, rational security seekers should constrain Greedy States by appeasing them with material incentives or by enhancing their own military capabilities. However, if greedy motives are in part constituted by SV then such strategies are unlikely to succeed. Rather, Glaser’s prescriptions for rational security seekers may exacerbate conflict as the behavior of devoted actors will not be directly proportional to the distribution of material capabilities or the costs of war. Ultimately, the nature of SV suggests that certain strategies prescribed for security seekers may increase the likelihood of protracted conflict.



Political Theory

Name: Hisseine Faradj
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: hfaradj@gmail.com
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Bronx Community College CUNY
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  The Resilience of Political Islam in the face of Post-Islamism
Abstract:
The early success of Political Islam or Islamist political parties during the “Arab Spring” signaled a shift in the nature of government and politics in the region ushering the arrival of what some dubbed as the “Arab Winter.” Accordingly, the ideologization of the religion of Islam was seen as shift away from the revolutionary goals and demands of establishing secular democracies that respect human right and the rule of law to theocracies resembling the regime governing the Islamic Republic of Iran. The early success of Islamist political parties was reversed and pummeled by an amalgamation of counter revolutionary forces that consists of the regional absolutist monarchies and aspiring military dictators prompting the academic literature and debates that coined the term Post-Islamism. This paper argues that this analysis is inaccurate and misleading as currents of Political Islam or Islamism are thriving at the moment as the winners of the repression campaign against other Islamist groups. Thus, speaking about Political Islam or Islamist political parties as a unified group with a unified fate is faulty and not helpful in understanding the political phenomenon. This assessment is possible by examining the notion of divine sovereignty that is at the core of the discourse of the founding ideologues of these political movements. This paper examines the contending concepts of divine sovereignty while connecting these notions of sovereignty to the winners and losers in the contemporary political landscape of the Middle Eastern and North African.


Name: Claudia Favarato
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: favaratoclaudia@gmail.com
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: University of Lisbon
Scheduling Preference:
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Paper Title:  Consenso di irmandade: Reading Bissau-Guinean Political Thought through Comparative Political Theory
Abstract:
Broadly speaking, the sub-Saharan regions receive little attention from political theory studies. Moreover, political theory in the continent is strictly intertwined with political philosophy or political anthropology. In this sense, comparative political theory (CPT) provides the theoretical frame to integrate the canons of the discipline with political thoughts and theories from marginalised areas. Although it is arguable that the efforts of CPT in Africa have, thus far, accorded less attention to indigenous, ordinary political thought than to “big thinkers”, the discipline offers a comprehensive frame for the understanding of political power. This paper aims to expose endogenous political thought of Guinea-Bissau through the reading lenses of CPT. The main benefit of this approach is that it enables the researcher to understand local conceptions of power and political relations beyond the state. The analysis uses a deductive-inductive approach. The data from fieldwork (2016; 2019; 2020) are gathered from individuals of different ethnical groups, thus transcending the religious and ethnical differentiation. The study focused primarily on discerning the principles underpinning power in the indigenous polity, where a communitarian understanding of the individual prevails. The reliance on the past, the land (tchon) and the kinship (djorson) determine the conceptualization of the functioning of the polity, ultimately governed by rules of participatory politics and “brotherhood consensus” (consenso di irmandade, in local creole). However, the tenets underlying indigenous political thought adapted and changed in the bi-directional process of Africanisation of power, due to the overarching presence of the state. The final aim of this paper is to shed some light on the reciprocal cooccurrence between the endogenous polity and the state (semi-presidential liberal democracy) on constituting Bissau-Guinean political thought today.


Name: Michael Gamkrelidze
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: Independent researcher
Professional Status:
Institution: Independent researcher
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: PT 4
Panel Description:
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Paper Title:  To science about social boundaries or social ammoriology
Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This paper is a continuation of “Democracy as a State of Social Boundaries”, presented at last year's NYSPSA 73-rd Annual Congress. The idea then was to consider social systems of various sizes and types, from a family of two members to the world community, as dynamic steady state systems, seeing the advantage of this approach in the possibility of describing social systems in non-anthropomorphic terms, free of value judgment and common to physical and biological systems. We proceeded from the fact that the state (condition, order) of the system is a mathematical concept, as well as the boundary, also common to physical and biological systems. We hope that it will gradually relieve us of the need to operate with such controversial and ambiguous terms as capitalism, socialism, democracy, liberalism, and many others. In this article an attempt has been made to outline the taxonomy of social boundaries, their nature, their interdependence, their significance, their variability, their impact on the stability of social systems, on their development, survival in competition, etc. Keywords are: sovereignty, discrete and continuous states of the social system, social boundary


Name: Nader Sadre
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: nsadre@gradcenter.cuny.edu
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: Hunter College
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: PT 1
Panel Description: Topics in Political Theory
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Paper Title:  Charismatic Pirates: Reading the Odyssey with Weber
Abstract:
My paper considers the role of mobility and liminality in Weber’s typology of authority. I ask, how does the im/mobility of the charismatic actor enhance or diminish her political status? Weber offers many examples of the charismatic figure, one of which is the ‘pirate’. He does not however thoroughly consider the mobility of the pirate as a conditioning factor on his authority. To explore this question further, I use Weber to reread Homer’s Odyssey. The Scherian episode, in which Odysseus relates his adventures to the Phaeacians, offers a rich illustration of a charismatic actor seizing authority from the king. Essential to this process is Odysseus’ mobility, his dual identity as monarch and pirate, as guest and stranger. By drawing out the relationship between authority and mobility, I hope to enrich our understanding of Weber’s account of charisma and complicate our views about the political capacity of the traveler.


Name: Yunus Sozen
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: sozenmy@lemoyne.edu
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Le Moyne college
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: PT 5
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Eylem Dogan, MEF University, Istanbul. doganib@mef.edu.tr
Co-presenter info: Eylem Dogan, MEF University, Istanbul. doganib@mef.edu.tr
Paper Title:  Populism, Resentment, and Ressentiment
Abstract:
In this paper, we focus on the relationship of two polemical concepts, resentment and populism, as well their connections with democracy and authoritarianism. To inquire upon this relationship, we first overview the populism literature and the uses of the concept of resentment in that literature, covering the debates on populism’s definition, origins, and relationship with democracy and authoritarianism. We observe that, in the literature on populism, resentment is mainly utilized to describe the negative emotion that leads to the rise of the so-called ‘noxious’ political phenomenon of populism, while there is a lacuna in the study of the relationship between populism-in-power and resentment. We then make two arguments concerning the interrelations of these two concepts, utilizing the Argentinean and Turkish cases of populism-in-power as illustrations. First, we argue that populism defined as a socio-cultural phenomenon, relates better with the concept of resentment and its theoretical background than other political strategic or ideological definitions of the concept. Our second argument connects resentment with populism-in-power in a modern democratic institutional framework. Building on Tocqueville’s insight that in modern democracies, the combination of political equality with persistent inequalities of social and economic power provide a fertile ground for envy-resentment, we argue that populism-in-power exacerbates already existing resentment-generating conditions of democracy. This occurs because of the tendency for populists-in-power to hyperpoliticize socio-cultural differences, their promise of redemption in this world through politics without delivering equality of power, and their rhetoric of victimhood while in power. Finally, utilizing Ure’s conceptual framework that distinguishes among different forms of resentment, we argue that populism-in-power (especially its right-wing forms) is the vehicle that potentially transforms (or degenerates) ‘socio-political resentment’ to ‘ontological ressentiment’.


Name: Joanne Tetlow
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: jtetlow@marymount.edu
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: Marymount University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Executive Orders: Arbitrary Political Power and Locke’s Second Treatise
Abstract:
The President of the United States has too much political power. And it is not constitutional. This excessive executive power has been operating in an unfettered way both in American government and society for far too long, at least since the end of World War II. Now is the time for change. President Donald J. Trump, who has used and abused executive power in a feckless and arbitrary manner, has brought a longstanding problem to the fore. This problem is presidential lawmaking through executive orders. We need a second U.S. Supreme Court decision along the lines of Youngstown Steel Tube Co. v. Sawyer (1952), where an executive order by President Harry Truman to seize private American steel mills was declared unconstitutional and stopped dead in its tracks. It is the U.S. Supreme Court who must take the first step in not only checking executive orders, but placing them on firm constitutional grounds under the separation of powers doctrine. Then, it is up to Congress to respond by delegating more circumscribed powers to the executive within those constitutional boundaries. This is the structural, governmental part of my argument, which will focus on the constitutional jurisprudence of executive orders and the “separation of powers” doctrine. In the second part of the paper, I will argue “why” action is necessary to change the course of executive power through an analysis of John Locke’s Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690). Locke theorizes and places lawmaking power in the legislature, not in the executive. Locke sees correctly that the executive power man gives up by coming out of the state of nature to form a civil government is “the execution of the laws” not the “right to make laws.” Political power is foremost the right to make laws. That lawmaking power is legislative, the body who has the supreme power in a commonwealth, and who directs the force of the community in the execution of such laws. Thus, implementation and execution of the law are not lawmaking powers; they are administrative and operational. Other than Locke’s exception for prerogative, the executive shall not, and must not, engage in lawmaking; otherwise, arbitrary power will violate the right of self-preservation and preservation of the community, the two fundamental natural laws of political society. Also, under Locke, if the legislative is altered, the government can be dissolved. In the American context, this dissolution of government would be ending unilateral presidential lawmaking through executive orders, and returning to the republican form of government intended by the U.S. Constitution. It is entirely clear the Founders did not want a monarchy. Continuing to permit substantive lawmaking by the President of the United States endangers the liberties of the people and its democratic republic. Further, the arbitrary nature of substantive executive orders changing from President to President does not serve the purpose of law, which is to be settled, established, and known based on the consent of the governed, or popular sovereignty.


Name: Aaron Zack
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: aaronmzack@gmail.com
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: John jay College and Baruch College, CUNY
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Panel Description:
Co-author info: none
Co-presenter info: none
Paper Title:  Byung Chul Han's Theory of the Digital Personality: the Prospects for Political Mobilization in a Digital World
Abstract:
Byung Chul Han is a contemporary German social theorist. His analysis of the digital world's deconstruction and construction of our political identities has received increasing attention, particularly as more of our political and intellectual activity shifts to a digital, virtual format. Standard analyses suggest that the digital world and social media facilitate political action and mass mobilization for political ends. Han, in contrast, asserts that the shift to digital personalities and a digital world has limited the prospects for real political thought, dialogue, and mobilization. This paper will present and analyze Han's insights about the digital world's effects on political debate and mass political mobilization.



Identity Politics

Name: Carolyn Conway
Section: Identity Politics
Professional Email: carolyn.conway@uconn.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: University of Connecticut
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Dr. Evelyn Simien - University of Connecticut (evelyn.simien@uconn.edu) Dr. Thomas Hayes - University of Connecticut (thomas.hayes@uconn.edu)
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Paper Title:  Multiple Group Identity, Candidate Affect, and Vote Choice in the 2016 American Presidential Election
Abstract:
What is the political significance of identity categories? Can vote choice and candidate affect legitimize ideology-based boundaries? Past research has established that feminists differ from non-feminists in their attitudes and values toward a range of policy issues (Cook 1993). More recent scholarship has found that African American and Latina women differ from white women in terms of candidate affect and vote choice (Simien and Hampson 2017). Feminists are more likely to support certain types of candidates than their non-feminist counterparts because of their social location (race, class and gender). Using data from the 2016 American National Election Studies (ANES), this paper investigates differences among women to determine the impact of multiple group identity on candidate affect and vote choice- that which results in bloc voting and boundary making during the presidential selection process . The paper develops a measure of candidate affect derived from the 2016 ANES. Feminist identity like racial group identity (read: black) should remain a statistically significant predictor of candidate affect even after controls for partisanship and ideology are included in respective models. It is our expectation that African American women and feminists alike will express greater dislike for the Republican candidate (Donald Trump) and this negative affect will serve as a catalyst for political behavior. Similarly, African American women and feminists alike will express greater warmth for the Democratic candidate (Hillary Clinton) and this positive affect will serve as a catalyst for political behavior.  


Name: Tara Riggs
Section: American Politics
Professional Email: triggs1@binghamton.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: Binghamton University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Do Women Belong in the Places Where Decisions Are Made? Evidence from an Experiment on Female Candidates and Out of Party Voting in the United States.
Abstract:
While in the ideal world sexism would not play a role in politics, its presence is undeniable- particularly in voting. In this paper, I examine the role gender and sexism play in voting. Will voters prefer an out of party candidate over a female candidate of their self-identified party? Theoretically, female candidates represent a deviation from the status quo. Will this motivate voters to vote out of party ( for a candidate that protects the status quo) when they deem the gender to be critical. In this paper, I present an original survey experiment that examines the role of gender and sexism in voting in which respondents in the treatment are presented with a female candidate of their own self-identified party and a male candidate of the opposite party. Will the introduction of a candidate’s gender change respondents’ choices in voting and drive voters to vote for an out of party candidate?



Public Policy and Public Administration

Name: Scott Astrada
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: sba50@georgetown.edu
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: Georgetown University Law Center
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
Panel Description:
Co-author info: Marvin Astrada, NYU-DC, ma190@nyu.edu
Co-presenter info: Marvin Astrada, NYU-DC, ma190@nyu.edu
Paper Title:  Language and Power: Revisiting the Role of Clarity in Political Discourse
Abstract:
The call for ‘clear language’ as a remedy for propaganda and spin has been at the forefront of modern politics, research and legal discourse. With a broad range of interdisciplinary commentary, political theorists, legal scholars and cultural critics have weighed in on the need for, or the lack of, clear language in the context of political engagement. What then is to be gained by deviating from Orwell’s essay Politics and the English Language, in this broader discussion? Rather than delve into the contrary position to adopting ‘clear language’, one held generally by critical theorists, this paper discusses the instances where ‘clear language’ functions in opposition to dynamic and direct communication in the policy, legal and political process. What are the instances of ‘clear language’ serving as a countervailing force to social progress, and/or evolving social contexts? The reliance on the underlying social framework, for ‘clear language’ to function, is a dependency that can be examined, reassessed, and potentially reframed in exploring the relationship between propaganda and truth, data and spin, and communications to/from/withing the legal and policy community. Contrasting examples can be drawn from legal opinions, policy debates, and legislation to trace the function of ‘clear language’ as a countervailing force against media spin and agitprop, as well as its inverse, in a manner that impedes social progress and the evolution of the various groundings of truth.


Name: Julianna Augello
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: julianna.augello@quinnipiac.edu
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Quinnipiac University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  The Perfect Storm: How the COVID-19 Pandemic Has Exposed the Flaws of a Neglectful System
Abstract:
As governments around the globe have imposed lockdowns and stay-at-home orders to contain the spread of Coronavirus, international organizations are reporting a significant increase in domestic violence. This multinational increase sheds light on underlying triggers that are increasing abusive tendencies in the current climate. Yet, domestic violence is often overlooked as a universal concern. Its historical roots are ancient, and deep - only recently has domestic violence been considered a violation of the law. However, domestic violence represents a serious, highly prevalent, and preventable public health problem worldwide. Thus, this paper uses extensive examination of the history of domestic violence responses to argue that the justice system is (and has been long before the COVID-19 outbreak) defective in its handling of domestic abuse cases. While there are still many questions left unanswered about the ways to conceptualize domestic violence in the age of COVID-19, this paper attempts to establish acceptable intervention strategies and reform that will not only carry this broken system out of the current pandemic, but also into the future.


Name: Roman Balaz
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: balrom@mail.muni.cz
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Masaryk University (Fulbright Alumni at Boston University)
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Meso-level policy change and ideas of policy actors: an analytical framework
Abstract:
Do we know how migrant incorporation is governed in various countries with different immigration histories, social values and economic rationales? To what extent do various policy actors (state, non-state, private, and public actors) deploy what migrant integration ideas into the governance of migrant integration? Migrant integration ideas are casual beliefs of whether and why to integrate at all, who should be integrated, where they should be integrated, at what cost, what are the expected benefits, and the like. Is the state or the central government willing to accept this deployment of ideas? If not, to what extent can regulate it? Available knowledge offers merely limited answers to these questions. The research bodies such as the Migration Policy Institute, IMISCOE or the National Academies have produced extensive and admirable knowledge on migration and migrant incorporation. However, several scholars point to a gap in migration and migrant integration research: a lack of meso-level insight on which structural, institutional and organizational features come into play during formulation, implementation, and administration of migrant integration/incorporation policies. There is missing comprehensive view on the interplay among migrant integration structure, societal institutions, and agency of policy actors and immigrants – an interplay which causes meso-level changes during the governance of migrant integration. In this paper, we offer a comprehensive view on the above interplay. The question is: How we can study the meso-level policy change in the governance of migrant integration? For answering the question, institutional and organizational theory, migration and integration studies, and discursive institutionalism are used. The proposed analytical framework: • Structures governance vertically (multi-level view) and horizontally (societal institutions view) • Distinguishes two organizational structures of governance: (1) coordination structure for decision-making, (2) coordination structure for implementation and administration • Incorporates the agency of policy actors into these settings of the governance of migrant integration • Enables us to compare ways of how particular migrant integration ideas become policies and practices in diverse countries Employing the framework, we can shed light on specific governance configurations in various states with different immigration histories, social values and economic rationales. Additionally, it can help us to understand how the interplay among migrant integration structure, societal institutions, and agency of policy actors (including immigrants) might influence the implementation of popular concepts such as diversity management, mainstreaming or city-level governance.


Name: Somabha Bandopadhay
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: somabhaphd2019@nujs.edu
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: SHIVAM PANDEY, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SCHOOL OF LAW AND JUSTICE, ADAMAS UNIVERSITY, KOLKATA, INDIA shivam1.pandey@adamasuniversity.ac.in
Co-presenter info: SHIVAM PANDEY, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SCHOOL OF LAW AND JUSTICE, ADAMAS UNIVERSITY, KOLKATA, INDIA shivam1.pandey@adamasuniversity.ac.in
Paper Title:  AGRICULTURAL COMMONS: WHERE DOES INDIA STAND?
Abstract:
Commons hold immense significance in the lives of considerable population of every nation, which is hardly in the public domain for discussion. The importance of common pool resources is growing perennially, so is its complex problems decreasing effectiveness. The idea of commons is premised on conservation and preservation of natural resources alongside survival of several communities who are dependent on these commons. The idea propagates a socialistic form of participatory governance of natural resources in a cycle of conservation, dependence and livelihood. Unfortunately, this has been suffering setbacks almost since its inception. Hardin in ‘Tragedy of Commons’ has expressed this view few decades back but societies are far from learning from his observations. The problems suffered by the West and East are surprisingly similar, even though it significantly differs in regard to the economy, technological developments, community’s awareness and adaptability to these. Nobel Laureate Elinor Ostrom has devised, what many subsequent scholars have opined the Indiana model of commons in the West; whereas, N.S. Jodha has considerably contributed to this in India. Common property resource management is the new trend-an alternative, efficient utilization and preservation of natural resources giving way for sustenance of the community to counterbalance the disadvantages they suffer. But, how far has this approach been adequately operated and stakeholders been made aware is doubtful. In India, the Jagpal Singh vs. State of Punjab judgement has for the first time contributed to the jurisprudence of commons in the contrary, if not the only authoritative documents emanating from the Indian legal system. The aftermath of this judgment has been felt in some states, though not all, but their significance is immense. Yet, the lingering question remains on the effectiveness of these policies. The paper proposes to investigate these issues to develop a sustainable model of conservation of nature.


Name: Kevin Bronner
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: kbronner@nycap.rr.com
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: Nelson A. Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy, University at Albany
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Kevin M. Bronner, Rockefeller College of Public Affairs & Policy, University at Albany. kbronner@albany.edu
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Paper Title: Did Local Governments in New York State Have Significant Bond Rating Reductions Due to the Coronavirus Pandemic from March 2020 to March 2021?
Abstract:
The paper reviews bond rating changes made by Moody's Investors Service during the coronavirus pandemic period. The bond rating changes for cities, counties, town governments and village governments in New York State will be examined. The paper will show which governments had reductions or increases in bond ratings during the period. The bond rating changes from March 2020 to March 2021 will be examined in the analysis. An analysis will show the degree to which bond rating changes were significantly influenced by the risk to local governments from the pandemic. There is a major risk to local governments from a loss of operating revenues during the period. It is expected that the loss of revenues may have a negative influence on the bond rating process.


Name: Michal Gilad
Section: Public Policy & Public Administration
Professional Email: gmichal@pennlaw.upenn.edu
Professional Status: Practitioner
Institution: National Prevention Science Coalition
Scheduling Preference:
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Abraham Gutman
Co-presenter info: Abraham Gutman, Philadelphia Inquierer
Paper Title:  The Tragedy of Wasted Funds and Broken Dreams: An Economic Analysis of Childhood Exposure to Crime and Violence
Abstract:
The problem of childhood exposure to crime and violence has been flagged for several decades as a monumental issue of great proportion. We have previously named the problem the Comprehensive Childhood Crime Impact, or Triple-C Impact for short. It was estimated to be one of the most costly public health and public safety problem in our society today. But how much does it cost us? In today’s world, crime penetrates the lives of children from all different directions. Children witness violence at school, in the neighborhood, or even in the “safety” of their own home. Children may also be affected indirectly when parents fall victims to crime, or when a parent is incarcerated. The unique developmental, social, and cultural characteristics of children make them particularly prone to the negative forces of crime. Childhood crime exposure leaves deep scars that gravely affect the health and life outcomes, of affected children. Despite the severity of the Triple-C Impact problem, and the devastating effect it has on millions of children nationwide, little is done on the policy level to heal the open wounds. The majority of children harmed by crime do not receive the much needed services to facilitate recovery from trauma. At present, there are no effective mechanisms in place to identify affected children and refer them to vital services. Although resources and services for affected children do exist in most States, access is obstructed by a myriad of bureaucratic hurdles and flaws in the system’s design. The ramifications of this ongoing state of neglect go beyond compromising the well-being of individual children, and have a spill-over effect on society. With millions of children across the nation untreated and hampered from conducting a healthy and productive lifestyle, and with heightened risk for acute health problems, substance use, criminal behavior, and repeat victimization, community safety is inevitably compromised. These negative outcomes of imposing proportions carry hefty costs that are inevitably shouldered by society as a whole, and unnecessarily burden public funds. Although the attention given to the problem and its costs has repeatedly recrudesced over the years, thus far no one has empirical knowledge as to the exact level of financial expenditure associated with the Triple-C Impact problem. This paper takes on the challenge of pursuing a data-driven economic analysis of the Triple-C Impact problem. The paper designs an economic model, using a cost-of-illness, “bottom up” approach, to evaluate the broad range of cost elements associated with the problem, and to estimate the full cost of the problem to the state and to society. It finds that such expenditure aggregates to a total annual cost of over $458 billion, or a lifetime cost of $194,413 per each affected individual. Ultimately, the analysis presented in this article sets the foundations for the development of an evidence-based argument as to the unparalleled opportunity for long-term fiscal savings and economic benefits of investment in public policies that enable early intervention efforts that will facilitate recovery of affected children and alleviate the risk for injurious outcomes.



State and Local Politics

Name: Michael Catalano
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: mcatala4@binghamton.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: SUNY Binghamton
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Co-author info: Matthew Walz, SUNY Binghamton, mwalz2@binghamton.edu
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Paper Title:  Fusion Voting in New York: Trading Votes for Policy between Political Parties
Abstract:
Fusion voting is a unique electoral institution prohibited by most US states but exercised in a remaining few, most notably in New York. Yet few empirical studies have considered why we see major and minor political parties cooperating through cross-endorsements of candidates. We argue that minor parties offer cross-endorsements (and extra votes) to major party candidates in exchange for policy concessions from major parties and their candidates, particularly where races are competitive. To test this theory, we examine the effects of fusion voting on the roll-call voting records of US House members in the state of New York in relation to House members from non-fusion voting states from 1952-2014. We find that minor party cross-endorsements appear to impact voting records of both Republican and Democratic Congressional delegations from New York, with changing directions of legislative behavior based on the position of the cross-endorsing minor party in relation to the major party whose candidate is being cross-endorsed.


Name: Toby Irving
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: tirving@gc.cuny.edu
Professional Status: Graduate Student
Institution: CUNY Graduate Center
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Political Maps and Police Accountability in New York City
Abstract:
In Summer 2020, calls to defund police landed on the front steps of the New York City Council as they approved a budget. While many significant policy areas impacting the City’s most vulnerable, namely housing regulations, are controlled by the State government, the NYPD is a City agency known for the strength of its union and lack of public accountability. Using GIS mapping in conversation with political records, I suggest that the ways in which police precincts overlap with City Council districts contribute to lack of police accountability by elected officials, and thus the public. Some of the most powerful actors in the City Council represent districts covered by six different police precincts, which reinforces the flawed problem-solving processes at the leadership-level and makes impossible precinct-level accountability and change. I suggest that further network analysis should be done regarding the relationships that exist at various geographic and political levels, and potential comparative work to other local models of police accountability.


Name: Uchechukwu Ojukwu
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: ug.ojukwu@coou.edu.ng
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Challenges of Political Leadership in Africa: The Study of Nigeria
Abstract:
The main thrust of this paper is to examines the extent to which poor and inept leadership have over the years, adversely affected the development of Nigeria as a nation. It argues that Nigeria’s failures have come about largely as a result of frequent leadership challenges; lack of ideology, policy reversal and weak institutional patterns. The study adopts descriptive approach and content analysis as its methodological orientation. Africa is a continent of huge contrasts, albeit a paradox that it is the richest in terms of resources yet the poorest in terms of living standards. Several factors have been offered to explain the apparent failure of development in the continent, more than any, the issue of leadership remains central to Africa's development crisis. This paper argues leadership problems as the greatest obstacle to development in the continent, hence, the decline in moral and high level of corruption caused by bad policies, eroded professional standards and ethics and weakened the system of governance. The paper observes that for Nigeria to overcome the crises of leadership in the country, those on whom the burden of leadership will fall in the future must fully comprehend their responsibilities, duties and obligation. The paper opines that in order to solve the nation’s intractable leadership and governance challenges conclusively, the country needs a true and transparent transformational leadership structure which will drive the political and governmental system for effective and efficient political leadership and governance that will ultimately usher in genuine and verifiable development for the overall benefit of the entire citizenry. Keywords: Political Leadership, Development, Good Governance, Africa and Nigeria.


Name: Brian Williams
Section: State and Local Politics
Professional Email: brian.williams04@cortland.edu
Professional Status: Assistant Professor
Institution: SUNY Cortland
Scheduling Preference: Friday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Direct Democracy and Voter Turnout at the County Level: The Case of Florida
Abstract:
Paper topic – This study focuses on the relationship between direct democracy (referenda, in particular) and voter turnout, using county-level data from the 2006-2020 general elections in the State of Florida. While previous studies have evaluated the relationship between direct democracy and voter turnout at the state level in the US, this is the first (to my knowledge) to address this question at the county level. Methods – OLS regression models are used to analyze a new county-level panel dataset from the State of Florida. The outcome variable is voter turnout as a percentage of registered voters in each county. The explanatory variables of interest are the total number of referenda on the ballot, as well as more specific variables indicating the total number of referenda addressing fiscal, social, and institutional issues. Preliminary findings - Previous results of the study, using data from the 2006-2016 general elections, showed that county referenda dealing with fiscal issues increase voter turnout during presidential elections. In this update, I add data from the 2018 and 2020 general elections and re-evaluate the results. Thus, the updated dataset will include data four midterm and four presidential elections.



Teaching and Learning

Name: Remi Alapo
Section: Teaching and Learning
Professional Email: oalapo@bmcc.cuny.edu
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: City University of New York (CUNY)
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: N/A
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Paper Title: Teaching Political Science as an experiential learning project: developing inclusive pedagogy for engaging students in and out of the classroom
Abstract:
Remi Alapo City University of New York (CUNY) Abstract NYSPSA Spring 2021 NYSPSA TEACHING AND LEARNING SECTION December 18, 2020 Topic: Teaching Political Science as an experiential learning project: developing inclusive pedagogy for engaging students in and out of the classroom A presentation on developing inclusive pedagogy for engaging students in and out of the classroom focused on first - hand competency in comparative politics on voting, elections and young people's participation in civic engagement in a democracy. The presenter will discuss the project in detail and how they developed open teaching resources for use in two political science courses which sought to understand paradox change and also in promoting citizenship and engagement in political issues, activities and events that improve student critical thinking and informed decision making in everyday civic life on issues that affect them and their communities. Furthermore, the presenter will discuss developing inclusive open educational resources (OER) which allows students to become more familiar with a framework of the various fields and topic areas in Political Science including American politics, comparative politics, international politics and political philosophy. The presenter previously incorporated this as part of a Service - Learning project at the Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) in collaboration with Community Board 1, Manhattan and affiliated students as volunteers with NYPIRG on voter education and would like to contribute to knowledge sharing at NYSPSA.


Name: Maxwell Burkey
Section: Teaching and Learning
Professional Email: MBurkey@gradcenter.cuny.edu
Professional Status: Adjunct Professor
Institution: Stockton University
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: PT 2
Panel Description:
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Paper Title: Developing Writing Skills Through Close Readings: Conceptual Outlines, Excerpt Papers, and Primary Texts in the Undergraduate Classroom
Abstract:
Developing skill in expressing oneself orally and in writing is a primary learning objective of both the core curriculums and of political science programs in higher education. In particular, many political science learning objectives encourage students to not only develop clarity in their writing, but also discover their own argumentative voice through engagement with contested political questions, ones that lend themselves to competing interpretations. Indeed, a primary goal of civic education is for students to be able to articulate critical understandings of the importance of such bedrock democratic values as freedom, equality, civic identity, and social justice. In political science classrooms, and especially in the subfield of political theory, this often takes the form of introducing students to key debates via primary texts, focusing on the nuances of textual interpretation. In this talk I will suggest that engaging students in “thick” readings of primary texts is a fruitful vehicle for developing critical writing skills, and that many of the pitfalls of student writing are best remedied by aiding students in closing readings of primary texts: essay writing is best taught through structured reading. I share a couple of strategies I have begun utilizing in undergraduate political science classes—Conceptual Outlines and Excerpt Papers—that incentivize students to read at a granular level and I reflect on how they may help to sensitize students to some of the key features of quality essay writing and argumentative analysis.


Name: Joshua Meddaugh, Ph.D.
Section: Teaching and Learning
Professional Email: joshuameddaugh@clayton.edu
Professional Status: Associate Professor
Institution: Clayton State University
Scheduling Preference:
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:
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Co-author info: David Peña, Clayton State University Justin Mays, Clayton State University
Co-presenter info: David Peña, Clayton State University Justin Mays, Clayton State University
Paper Title:  Massively Multi-section Online POLS Course (MMOPC): Designing and Instructing American Government for Student Success in the Age of COVID
Abstract:
The paper examines designing an open-access Introduction to American Government course. The stated goal of the design is to create numerous massive online student enrolled sections of POLS 1101: Introduction to American Government while keeping course content, student success, and student experience levels high.



Undergraduate Research

Name: Gabriel Henrique Alves
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: gabriel.henrique98@gmail.com
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: University of Lisbon - Institute of Social and Political Sciences
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title:  Proxy wars and Superterrorism: A new challenge for the international intelligence in the Middle East
Panel Description: An presentation regarding the theme of  “Proxy wars and Superterrorism: A new challenge for the international intelligence in the Middle East”.
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Paper Title:  THE GEOGRAPHY OF HUNGER AND REFUGEE SECURITY DILEMMAS
Abstract:
The last century was surrounded by wars and conflicts, which it designed the security’s agenda around the military aspect. With the post Cold War, the world started to point to new issues and the security meaning has been changed, focusing on different aspects, such as, what is the real meaning for security? For whom? How does international security reflect under non-States actors? For Barry Buzan, there is a need for a board concept for security, that is based on three major points to be evaluated on securitization analysis: “The changing priority among security issues caused by rising density; the useful political qualities of the concept; and its integrative qualities. [...] The rising density of the international system creates a very powerful interplay between anarchy and interdependence”. With this in mind, the migratory crisis is one the main dilemmas nowadays, in view of its background, related to war, armed conflict, religious persecution, environmental hazards and food insecurity. The report published by the World Food Programme (WFP) and International Organization for Migration (IOM) on Novembro 2020, announced 272 million international migrants and refugees in 2019, which 45,7 million are displaced due to conflicts and 5,1 million, as a result of natural disasters. However, 2020 was a year where those people saw borders closing, the lack of international financing, violence, which 1 billion people were considered malnourished, letting those dying not because of COVID-19 but from starvation. The Geography of Hunger is a security dilemma, once armed conflict and food insecurity are linked in a nefarious circle, since they can be triggered for wars, as assumed by the UNSC resolution 2417 and the 2020 Nobel Prize Committee: the “link between hunger and armed conflict is a vicious circle: war and conflict can cause food insecurity and hunger, just as hunger and food insecurity can cause latent conflicts to flare up and trigger the use of violence.” Also, 4/5 of those people are living in nations with precarious levels of food security and 9/10 passed for a strong food crisis. This article has the purpose to analyse the following start question: How does the Geography of hunger, in terms of food insecurity, reverberate on refugee’s security dilemmas, in order to intensify the migratory crisis and the war for survival? Hence, the base theory begins with the securitization of Buzan to introduce this agenda. Therefore, the methodology is based on a comprehensive approach under constructivism, the perspective of Human Geography of Vidal de La Blache and the idea of “vital space” by Ratzel. Finally, the structure of food security and insecurity related to availability, access, utilization dimension and stability, as the main factors for the plasticity and formation of ecumenes, quoted by Max Scorre to appraise the study of migration. Keywords: Securitization; Hunger; Refugees; Geography and Wars.


Name: Abagail Cacovic
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: abagail.cacovic@quinnipiac.edu
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Quinnipiac University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title: A New Era For Vaccinations
Abstract:
In uncertain times like these, by not taking advantage of any possible scientific advances in vaccines that have statistical proven to help so many people prevent dangerous and debilitating diseases, the population is leaving ourselves more susceptible than ever. We have more knowledge and better technology than ever before yet, it seems that we are not advancing at the same rate as the science is. There have been landmark decisions such as Jacobson v. Massachusetts, which has set forth that individual liberty is not absolute. There should be more legislation in place to make vaccines more regulated and implement more safeguards for our communities and the health, safety and welfare for individuals everywhere.


Name: Javier Fernandez
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: javier.fernandez@westpoint.edu
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: United States Military Academy at West Point
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Insurgency versus Terrorist Organization: The Christian Identity Movement A Case-In-Point?
Abstract:
Over the past four decades, the United States has seen a resurgence in far-right extremist activity, with groups’ growing physicality drawing the attention of policymakers and scholars alike. There is a vast volume of literature outlining far-right extremist organization and operational capabilities across multiple disciplines. However, contemporary discussions’ focus on these groups as ‘terrorist organizations’ rather than insurgencies, a designation that overlooks the strategic complexity of their motivations and the resources at their disposal. This paper uses the American Christian Identity Movement as a case study. The framework presented for conceptualizing insurgency growth and organization is derived from Seth G. Jones’ Waging Insurgent Warfare: Lessons from the Vietcong to the Islamic State and Bard O’Neill’s Insurgency & Terrorism: From Revolution to Apocalypse.. The following case study highlights the doctrinal differences between ‘terrorism/terrorist organizations’ and ‘insurgency.’ Furthermore, this case study concludes by stressing the importance in classifying the ideology, organizational and operational capabilities of far-right extremist groups in the U.S. as insurgencies and the consequences of that designation.


Name: Michael Gamkrelidze
Section: Political Theory
Professional Email: Independent researcher
Professional Status:
Institution: Independent researcher
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
Panel Title: PT 4
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Paper Title:  To science about social boundaries or social ammoriology
Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This paper is a continuation of “Democracy as a State of Social Boundaries”, presented at last year's NYSPSA 73-rd Annual Congress. The idea then was to consider social systems of various sizes and types, from a family of two members to the world community, as dynamic steady state systems, seeing the advantage of this approach in the possibility of describing social systems in non-anthropomorphic terms, free of value judgment and common to physical and biological systems. We proceeded from the fact that the state (condition, order) of the system is a mathematical concept, as well as the boundary, also common to physical and biological systems. We hope that it will gradually relieve us of the need to operate with such controversial and ambiguous terms as capitalism, socialism, democracy, liberalism, and many others. In this article an attempt has been made to outline the taxonomy of social boundaries, their nature, their interdependence, their significance, their variability, their impact on the stability of social systems, on their development, survival in competition, etc. Keywords are: sovereignty, discrete and continuous states of the social system, social boundary


Name: Jessica Gibree
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: Jessica.gibree@quinnipiac.edu
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Quinnipiac University
Scheduling Preference: No Preference
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Lawsuits Lead the Way to Finding a Solution for the Climate Crisis
Abstract:
There is a lack of action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and combat climate change in the United States. As a result, citizens, environmental organizations, and states have turned to the courts, desperate to find a judicial remedy. This paper examines the United States’ current climate protection policies, domestically and internationally. Then, it analyzes three of the many creative claims that parties have brought seeking relief from climate change. The first claim is that the government is violating the constitution, specifically Fifth Amendment Due Process and Equal Protection, and the Ninth Amendment. The next claim is that the federal government is violating the Public Trust Doctrine by causing climate change, which will deprive future generations of natural resources. The third claim is that climate change is a public nuisance because it unreasonably interferes with rights common to the general public. Juliana v. United States, and Rhode Island v. Chevron Corp., are two ongoing cases that the paper discusses to support these claims and prove that the courts must grant relief from climate change. Courts are reluctant to issue policy-making decisions, but this paper proves that they do so when it is necessary. This paper will analyze other common barriers for the courts to grant relief, but ultimately concludes that the climate crisis is worsening, and the courts must act now to protect the climate and citizens of the United States.


Name: Joel Oyuo
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: joyuo@albany.edu
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: University at Albany
Scheduling Preference: Friday Afternoon
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  Financial Literacy in the African Diaspora
Abstract:
Faculty Sponsor—Professor Robert Whitaker, Hudson Valley Community College Financial Literacy in the African Diaspora Financial literacy is a vital life skill that everyone must have. The Government Accountability Office defines financial literacy as “the ability to make informed judgments and take effective actions regarding the current and future use and management of money.” However, as a form of education, financial literacy lacks standardization. Rarely are financial education programs incorporated in school curriculums nationwide, leaving financial literacy to be determined based on one’s environment. Acknowledging that one’s environment (socioeconomic status, residential location, race, etc.) is the largest determinant of a student’s financial literacy, it is important to also recognize the many white supremacist practices and ideals that exist today affecting the African Diaspora. With bank deserts (sparsely located banks in areas with large minority or low-income residents), snob zoning (discriminative residential zoning), among many other barriers, it is impossible for Black families (Descendants of Slaves in America, Africans, and Afro-Latinos) as an aggregate to become financially literate. Unfortunately, I have found that an alarming amount of existing research with regards to the inaccessibility of financial literacy is incredibly incomplete and continues to exclude how it impacts the African Diaspora. In order to investigate this issue, I intend to conduct multiple case studies into how the zoning practices in New York cities like Albany, Buffalo, and New York City, still encourage segregation even after such has been illegal decades ago, and how that creates bank desserts and other toxic environments that deny the ability to become financially literate. The government definition of financial literacy, widely used by existing financial literacy programs, fails to consider the fact that societal tools that already exist to become financially literate are inaccessible to the African Diaspora. Many of these programs and workshops, and even tests used by researchers to gauge the financial literacy of targeted sample groups, focus more on things like specific words when it comes to credit cards and loans. However, these can be addressed by simply reading the “fine print,” which is much easier today with an increased access to technology. Therefore, it is not a lack of financial literacy that prevents targeted communities from making “informed judgements” --instead, it is the systemic denial of the necessary tools to be able to make these informed judgements. This whole issue is a small part of a much bigger issue, which is the systematic denial of wealth against Black families in America. Financial literacy should be defined as the ability to use societal tools to create wealth. Wealth creation is financial literacy. While systematic efforts to obstruct financial literacy in Black communities should be counteracted, financial education must also be geared toward accessing the available societal tools, like the stock market and banks, if there shall ever be an end to the racial wealth gap here in America.


Name: Dorian Provencher
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: dprovencher@mmm.edu
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: Marymount Manhattan College
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
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Paper Title:  African and Western States’ Approaches to Human Rights: A Theoretical Analysis of State Behavior in the HRC's Universal Periodic Review
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The UN Human Rights Council’s Universal Periodic Review [UPR] is the only human rights mechanism that monitors and reviews all UN member states, and states’ responses to each other and their respective human rights abuses vary considerably. What accounts for this variation? This research analyzes states’ behavior and their interactive dialogue around human rights issues by focusing on two African states: Ghana and South Africa. Reviewing the first and second UPR reports from 2008 and 2012 for these two cases, this research paper compares how African and Western states respond to human rights abuses in Ghana and South Africa, and argues that the differences between these two groups can be explained by the different power dynamics between the two regions, using both a realist and a constructivist lens. Understanding how states behave not only contributes to answering the big questions of international politics but also provides insight into the ways through which to progress the global human rights agenda.


Name: Daria Wilk
Section: Undergraduate Research
Professional Email: dariawilk18@stjohns.edu
Professional Status: Undergraduate Student
Institution: St. John's university
Scheduling Preference: Saturday Morning
Proposal Type: Paper
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Paper Title:  The Northern Ireland Conflict: The Impact of United Kingdom’s Membership in the European Union
Abstract:
Daria Wilk St. John’s University Sponsor faculty: Professor Azzedine Layachi, St. John’s University Undergraduate Panel Proposal Abstract The conflict in Northern Ireland started after the Irish independence war in 1921 and lasted until 1998 when Good Friday Agreement was signed. The conflict left Northern Ireland with not only multiple casualties but also a deep division inside of the society and weak economy. During the conflict the United Kingdom (U.K) and the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community in 1973 (later turned into membership in the European Union- EU); both were members of regional organization during peacebuilding process. The main research question paper aims to answer is: How did the UK’s membership in the European Union and the evolving EU integration affect both, the conflict itself and peacebuilding process in Northern Ireland from 1973 to 2019? The preliminary findings show that the EU was not primary factor behind the peace. However, it aided it in two ways. First, the EU facilitated cooperation between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, which allowed them to build mutual respect necessary for reaching a peace deal. Second, the EU played an important supporting role in peacebuilding through the EU Program for Peace and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland and the Border Region of Ireland (PEACE) and the Interregional Cooperation programs (INTERREG). The PEACE Program aimed at building and fostering peace between two conflicted sides in the Northern Ireland. The INTERREG Program aimed to improve cross-border cooperation between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. It provided opportunities for the two countries to discuss the conflict in the Northern Ireland on neutral grounds, facilitated negotiations and compromise, and pressured the United Kingdom to solve the issue of Northern Ireland. This study uses historical institutionalism as theoretical approach, which looks at how formal and informal institutions affect decision-making processes, policy-building, and policy outcomes. This approach helps uncover how decisions made in the past by institutions affect the future decisions and outcomes. Historical institutionalism acknowledges the impact of multiple actors on decision-making processes; this is important in complex topics like peacebuilding. The paper uses a qualitative method, which gives an in-depth understanding of the topic. The focus was on secondary research, in which multiple primary and secondary sources were gathered to observe changes in the conflict and peacebuilding. The sources aiding the analysis include scholarly publications, official documents, and memoirs. The chosen theoretical approach and methodology allow me to look at the conflict in Northern Ireland in a holistic way instead of just statistical one.



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